Types Of Exocrine Glands
Exocrine glands can be divided into
Simple exocrine glands
These are glands that do not have any branches in their anatomy. These types of glands include mucous secreting glands in the large intestine.
Compound exocrine glands
Salivary glands with branches are compound exocrine glands
These glands have numerous branches in their internal anatomy. All these branches collect the secretion to pour out into the main branch. Examples of this type of gland include salivary glands.
How Is Thyroid Disease Treated
Your healthcare providers goal is to return your thyroid hormone levels to normal. This can be done in a variety of ways and each specific treatment will depend on the cause of your thyroid condition.
If you have high levels of thyroid hormones , treatment options can include:
- Anti-thyroid drugs : These are medications that stop your thyroid from making hormones.
- Radioactive iodine: This treatment damages the cells of your thyroid, preventing it from making high levels of thyroid hormones.
- Beta blockers: These medications dont change the amount of hormones in your body, but they help control your symptoms.
- Surgery: A more permanent form of treatment, your healthcare provider may surgically remove your thyroid . This will stop it from creating hormones. However, you will need to take thyroid replacement hormones for the rest of your life.
If you have low levels of thyroid hormones , the main treatment option is:
- Thyroid replacement medication: This drug is a synthetic way to add thyroid hormones back into your body. One drug thats commonly used is called levothyroxine. By using a medication, you can control thyroid disease and live a normal life.
Is There A Higher Risk Of Developing Thyroid Disease If I Have Diabetes
If you have diabetes, youre at a higher risk of developing a thyroid disease than people without diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. If you already have one autoimmune disorder, you are more likely to develop another one.
For people with type 2 diabetes, the risk is lower, but still there. If you have type 2 diabetes, youre more likely to develop a thyroid disease later in life.
Regular testing is recommended to check for thyroid issues. Those with type 1 diabetes may be tested more often immediately after diagnosis and then every year or so than people with type 2 diabetes. There isnt a regular schedule for testing if you have type 2 diabetes, however your healthcare provider may suggest a schedule for testing over time.
If you have diabetes and get a positive thyroid test, there are a few things to you can do to help feel the best possible. These tips include:
- Getting enough sleep.
- Taking all of your medications as directed.
- Getting tested regularly as directed by your healthcare provider.
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Medullary Thyroid Cancer: What About Lymph Nodes
We have lymph nodes all over our body that are made up of groups of infection-fighting and cancer fighting immune cells. We all have had swollen glands in our neck when we had a sore throat or tonsils. These same glands that get swollen when we have a neck infection can help fight cancer by preventing the cancer cells from spreading from the thyroid to the rest of the body.
Medullary thyroid cancer can grow slowly for years and has time for the medullary thyroid cancer to spread into the lymph nodes which are doing their job of capturing the cancerous cells before they can spread further. The medullary thyroid cancer basically gets stuck in the lymph node something like a filter. Our bodies dont have any ability to remove the cancer from this filter system and therefore the medullary cancer cells begin growing within the lymph nodes.
In a common sense fashion, if you are already going to be there to remove the medullary thyroid cancer, the you are better off removing the lymph nodes because the subsequent scarring will make further surgery in the area more difficult and the risk for microscopic metastatic disease is so high in the local lymph nodes. In our opinion, in these circumstances, done and out is good!
Hereditary medullary thyroid cancers can have quite predictably outcomes regarding how the cancer may behave. For example, some genetic mutations of the RET gene may be associated with:
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How Is Iodine Deficiency Prevented
As with many diseases, it is better to prevent the problem rather than have to treat it. Over the last 80 years, worldwide efforts have been made to eliminate iodine deficiency. Elimination of iodine deficiency has been a major goal of the Iodine Global Network, UNICEF, and the World Health Organization. Iodized salt has been the mainstay of the prevention of iodine deficiency worldwide. In regions where iodized salt is not widely available, or where pregnant women are known to have inadequate iodine intakes, use of a daily iodine-containing supplement may be recommended for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Injections of iodized oil are occasionally used in severely iodine deficient regions of the world where widespread iodized salt use is not possible.
UNITED STATES RECOMMENDATIONS The Institute of Medicine has set the Recommended Dietary Allowance for iodine in adult men and women at 150 g per day. Individuals who add salt to their food regularly during cooking or at the table should use iodized salt. In the US and Canada, one teaspoon of iodized salt contains approximately 250 g iodine. Most U.S. iodine-containing multivitamins marketed for non-pregnant adults have at least 150 g iodine, but only about 60% of the types of prenatal multivitamins in the U.S. contain iodine.
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Disorders Of The Pituitary Gland
Various pituitary hormones are responsible for a number of vital processes in the body, like maintenance of homeostasis, growth, metabolism, sexuality, reproduction, mood, behavior and so on.
Major diseases of the pituitary gland are characterized by either hypersecretion or hypo-secretion of hormones. It may result from a number of underlying factors including tumor development and impaired blood supply to the gland.
Some of the major disorders of pituitary gland are listed here along with their relation to specific hormones.
How Is Hypothyroidism Treated
Hypothyroidism is treated with medicine that gives your body the thyroid hormone it needs to work normally. The most common medicines are man-made forms of the hormone that your thyroid makes. You will likely need to take thyroid hormone pills for the rest of your life. When you take the pills as your doctor tells you to, the pills are very safe.
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Are There Different Types Of Thyroid Removal Surgery
If your healthcare provider determines that your thyroid needs to be removed, there are a couple of ways that can be done. Your thyroid may need to be completely removed or just partially. This will depend on the severity of your condition. Also, if your thyroid is very big or has a lot of growths on it, that could prevent you from being eligible for some types of surgery.
The surgery to remove your thyroid is called a thyroidectomy. There are two main ways this surgery can be done:
- With an incision on the front of your neck.
- With an incision in your armpit.
The incision on the front of your neck is more of the traditional version of a thyroidectomy. It allows your surgeon to go straight in and remove the thyroid. In many cases, this might be your best option. You may need this approach if your thyroid is particularly big or has a lot of larger nodules.
Alternatively, there is a version of the thyroid removal surgery where your surgeon makes an incision in your armpit and then creates a tunnel to your thyroid. This tunnel is made with a special tool called an elevated retractor. It creates an opening that connects the incision in your armpit with your neck. The surgeon will use a robotic arm that will move through the tunnel to get to the thyroid. Once there, it can remove the thyroid back through the tunnel and out of the incision in your armpit.
- Are not at a healthy body weight.
- Have large thyroid nodules.
- Have a condition like thyroiditis or Gravess disease.
What Do Parathyroid Glands Do
Parathyroid glands control the calcium levels in our blood, in our bones, and throughout our body. Parathyroid glands regulate the calcium by producing a hormone called Parathyroid Hormone . Calcium is the most important element in our bodies , so calcium is regulated more carefully than any other element. In fact, calcium is the only element with it’s own regulatory system — the parathyroid glands.
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How Is Thyroid Disease Diagnosed
Sometimes, thyroid disease can be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms are easily confused with those of other conditions. You may experience similar symptoms when you are pregnant or aging and you would when developing a thyroid disease. Fortunately, there are tests that can help determine if your symptoms are being caused by a thyroid issue. These tests include:
- Blood tests.
- Physical exams.
One of the most definitive ways to diagnose a thyroid problem is through blood tests. Thyroid blood tests are used to tell if your thyroid gland is functioning properly by measuring the amount of thyroid hormones in your blood. These tests are done by taking blood from a vein in your arm. Thyroid blood tests are used to see if you have:
The specific blood tests that will be done to test your thyroid can include:
These tests alone arent meant to diagnose any illness but may prompt your healthcare provider to do additional testing to evaluate for a possible thyroid disorder.
Additional blood tests might include:
Talk to your healthcare provider about the ranges for these thyroid blood tests. Your ranges might not be the same as someone elses. Thats often alright. If you have any concerns or worries about your blood test results, talk to your provider.
An ultrasound typically takes about 20 to 30 minutes.
Can I Check My Thyroid At Home
You can do a quick and easy self-exam of your thyroid at home. The only tools you need to do this self-exam are a mirror and a glass of water.
To do the thyroid self-exam, follow these steps:
- Start by identifying where your thyroid is located. Generally, youll find the thyroid on the front of your neck, between your collar bone and Adams apple. In men, the Adams apple is much easier to see. For women, its usually easiest to look from the collar bone up.
- Tip your head back while looking in a mirror. Look at your neck and try to hone in on the space you will be looking once you start the exam.
- Once youre ready, take a drink of water while your head is tilted back. Watch your thyroid as you swallow. During this test, youre looking for lumps or bumps. You may be able to see them when you swallow the water.
Repeat this test a few times to get a good look at your thyroid. If you see any lumps or bumps, reach out to your healthcare provider.
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If Part Of My Thyroid Is Surgically Removed Will The Other Part Be Able To Make Enough Thyroid Hormones To Keep Me Off Of Medication
Sometimes, your surgeon may be able to remove part of your thyroid and leave the other part so that it can continue to create and release thyroid hormones. This is most likely in situations where you have a nodule thats causing your thyroid problem. About 75% of people who have only one side of the thyroid removed are able to make enough thyroid hormone after surgery without hormone replacement therapy.
What Is The Thyroid Gland
The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland that is normally located in the lower front of the neck. The thyroids job is to make thyroid hormones, which are secreted into the blood and then carried to every tissue in the body. Thyroid hormone helps the body use energy, stay warm and keep the brain, heart, muscles, and other organs working as they should.
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How Thyroid Medication Can Affect Hair Loss
Thyroid hair loss can be particularly frustrating because some thyroid medications can actually increase hair loss. If you have an overactive thyroid , you could be prescribed antithyroid drugs to treat the issue. Unfortunately, antithyroid medication such as propylthiouracil, carbimazole and methimazole can further interrupt a healthy hair cycle. Of course, once you start taking the drugs, it can be hard to work out whether it’s the original thyroid issue or the medication that’s slowing the hair growth cycle.
If you’re concerned about taking medication that may exacerbate hair loss, always consult your health care professional and endocrinologist.
What Is Dizziness Actually
We come across the term dizziness all the time, or we often feel dizzy, but have you ever wondered what it is actually? Dizziness is a term that refers to an array of sensations such as feeling woozy, faint, unsteady, or weak. Sometimes people feel like their surroundings are spinning around them and say theyre dizzy, but in fact, thats just a form of dizziness called vertigo. Lightheadedness is one of the most common reasons why people schedule an appointment to see their doctor or health care provider.
It is worth noting that dizziness is not a standalone disease or health condition, but rather a symptom that occurs due to a wide range of health problems. Thats exactly why dizziness is not something you should ignore. Multiple diseases can make us feel dizzy, but your doctor can make an accurate diagnosis and find the root cause.
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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Hypothyroidism
Symptoms of hypothyroidism develop slowly, often over several years. At first, you may feel tired and sluggish. Later, you may develop other signs and symptoms of a slowed-down metabolism, including:
- Feeling cold when other people do not
- A hoarse voice
- More than usual menstrual bleeding
You also may have high LDL or “bad” cholesterol, which can raise your risk for .
Metabolism Of Thyroid Hormones And Their Effects On The Cardiovascular System
Triiodothyronine is the biologically active form of thyroid hormone derived from 5-monodeiodination of thyroxine in all tissues outside of the thyroid gland, particularly the kidney, liver, and skeletal muscle. The basal metabolic rate is affected by fT3 via altering oxygen consumption, substrate requirements and tissue thermogenesis . Thyroid hormones have direct and indirect cellular effects on the cardiovascular system. In hyperthyroidism systemic vascular resistance decreases as fT3 dilates resistance arterioles of the peripheral circulation, which results in the fall of the effective arterial filling followed by stimulation of renin release and activation of the angiotensin-aldosterone axis .
According to earlier studies heart failure develops in 616% of patients with hyperthyroidism. Patients with preexisting hypertension or with risk factors for coronary artery disease have a more pronounced risk for developing hemodynamic changes leading to chronic heart failure. A relatively frequent complication of hyperthyroidism, atrial fibrillation, is an independent predictor for the development of chronic heart failure .
We have previously shown that in patients who had undergone thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer, increased aortic stiffness and impaired diastolic function can be detected during induced overt hypothyroidism, which is part of the diagnostic follow-up procedure .
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Medullary Thyroid Cancer: How Is It Diagnosed
Medullary thyroid cancer starts as a growth of abnormal cancer cells within the thyroid. These special cells are the parafollicular C cells. In the hereditary form of medullary thyroid cancer, the growth of these cells is due to a mutation in the RET gene which was inherited. This mutated gene may first produce a premalignant condition called C cell hyperplasia. The parafollicular C cells of the thyroid begin to have unregulated growth. In the inherited forms of medullary thyroid cancer, the growing C cells may form a bump or a nodule in any portion of the thyroid gland. Unfortunately, even in cases of hereditary medullary thyroid cancer, many patients are not diagnosed until the medullary thyroid cancer has spread to the lymph nodes of the neck and presented with a lump in the neck.
Although medullary thyroid cancer may develop in any portion of the thyroid gland, the knowledge that parafollicular C cells are most dense in the upper thyroid is very important to the expert thyroid cancer surgeon. In patients with a RET gene mutation, removing the entire thyroid gland can provide the diagnosis of C cell hyperplasia and even early medullary thyroid cancers can completely cure the medullary thyroid cancer component of their disease or syndrome.
What Is Thyroid Cancer
Thyroid cancer happens when cancer cells form from the tissues of the thyroid gland.
Most people with thyroid cancer have a thyroid nodule that does not cause any symptoms. If you do have symptoms, you may have swelling or a lump in your neck. The lump may cause problems swallowing. Some people get a hoarse voice.
To tell if the lump or nodule is cancerous, your doctor will order . Most thyroid nodules are not cancerous.
For more information about thyroid cancer, visit the National Cancer Institute’s thyroid cancer page.
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Tumors Of Pituitary Gland
The tumors may be either cancerous or non-cancerous . However, in the majority of the cases, these are benign. Such a condition gives rise to the deficiency or over production of any one or all of the Pituitary Hormones.
As the hormones secreted by this pea-sized organ are used to regulate very critical body organs and glands, their under- or overproduction is sure to affect dozens of vital bodily functions and processes.
Sometimes, it may also happen that even after the development of a tumor the affected gland continues working normally. According to the findings of the American Cancer Society, pituitary cancer is very rare and mostly older people fall victim to it.
The choice of and appropriate treatment measure depends on the size, stage and nature of the tumor. Surgical removal may also be suggested in more severe cases.