Thyroid Hypothyroidism And Hyperthyroidism
The thyroid gland is a butterfly shaped gland that is located in the lower part of the neck along your windpipe beneath the Adamâs apple. The thyroid gland is an important gland in charge of many bodily functions. The main function of the thyroid gland is to release thyroid hormones that control metabolic activity.;
If thyroid hormones are too low, it is called hypothyroidism. Here are some signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism:
- Feeling cold when others are not
- Joint or muscle pain
- Weight gain, even if you are not eating more food
If thyroid hormones are too high, it is called hyperthyroidism. With hyperthyroidism your thyroid is overactive. Here are some signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism:
- Muscle weakness
If you are having symptoms of a thyroid disorder you should see a doctor. Endocrinologists and primary care physicians can prescribe medications to treat thyroid disorders. If your PCP is unable to diagnose and treat your condition they will refer you to an endocrinologist.
Your Symptoms Dont Improve
If you have been seeking treatment for your thyroid gland from your general practitioner, your treatment may have been limited due to a lack of specialization. This might not be enough to handle your condition, resulting in symptoms that dont improve over time and perhaps actually get worse. If you dont see the desired results from your treatment, its time to find an endocrinologist.
When To See An Endocrinologist For Diabetes
If you have been diagnosed with diabetes and you are on insulin or need more specific care, you may be sent to a diabetes specialist by your primary care provider. This specialist is called an endocrinologist, specializing in disorders of the endocrine system. This system produces hormones that regulate metabolism, reproduction, and homeostasis.
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Creating A Diabetes Team
To help you manage every aspect of your health and diabetes, you may find that creating a team of different healthcare providers can be incredibly resourceful. These health providers can include:
- Primary care provider: A healthcare provider who can oversee your entire health and well-being along with your diabetes
- Endocrinologist: A healthcare provider who will provide specialized diabetic care
- Ophthalmologist/optometrist:A healthcare provider who can diagnose and treat eye disorders
- Podiatrist: A healthcare provider who can treat feet and lower leg problems such as nerve damage and ulcers
- Pharmacist: A professional who can advise you on your medications and how to take them properly
- Dentist: A healthcare provider who can monitor your oral health, which impacts your overall health
- Registered nurse/nurse navigator: Nurses who can help coordinate your medical care
- Registered dietitian: A healthcare professional who can help you figure out what to eat and drink to manage your diabetes
- Certified diabetes care and education specialist : Professionals who can help you manage the things you need to do to take care of your diabetes
- Mental health professional: Healthcare providers and therapists who can help you deal with the challenges of day-to-day life with diabetes and any emotions that come along with this
- Fitness professional: A physical therapist, physiologist, or personal trainer who can help you stay active
What Are The Effects Of Thyroid Issues On Women
Thyroid illness is more common in women than in males. Thyroid disease affects one out of every eight women at some point in her life.1 Thyroid diseases can cause:
·;;;;;;;; Youre having issues with your menstrual cycle. Your thyroid aids in the regulation of your menstrual cycle. Your periods may become very light, heavy, or irregular if you have too much or too little thyroid hormone. Thyroid disease can also induce amenorrhea. Which is when your periods stop for several months or more. Other glands, including your ovaries, may be affecter if your immune system causes thyroid disease. Early menopause may result as a result of this .
·;;;;;;;; Having trouble getting pregnant. Ovulation is affecter when thyroid illness impacts the menstrual cycle. This may make it more difficult for you to conceive.
·;;;;;;;; Obstacles during pregnancy Thyroid issues during pregnancy can affect both the mother and the babys health.
Thyroid disorders can sometimes be confuse for menopause symptoms. thyroid disease, particularly hypothyroidism. It is more prone to develop.
How Long After My Thyroid Is Removed Will My Tiredness Go Away
Typically, you will be given medication to help with your symptoms right after surgery. Your body actually has thyroid hormone still circulating throughout it, even after the thyroid has been removed. The hormones can still be in your body for two to three weeks. Medication will reintroduce new hormones into your body after the thyroid has been removed. If you are still feeling tired after surgery, remember that this can be a normal part of recovering from any type of surgery. It takes time for your body to heal. Talk to your healthcare provider if you are still experiencing fatigue and other symptoms of thyroid disease after surgery.
When Should You See An Endocrinologist
Experts recommend that you consult with an endocrinologist after getting a diagnosis of hypothyroidism to confirm your diagnosis, test results, and treatment strategy. After a couple of visits and depending on the specific circumstances of your diagnosis, you can go back to your primary doctor and see your endocrinologist as needed. There are certain instances, however, in which it will be in your best interest to have an endocrinologist supervise your care.
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Conditions We Treat: Thyroid Disorders
The thyroid gland, an endocrine gland located in the neck just below the Adam’s apple, produces hormones that play a key role in regulating blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate, metabolism and the reaction of the body to other hormones. The two main hormones produced by the thyroid are thyroxine and triiodothyronine. It also produces calcitonin, which stimulates bone cells to add calcium to bone and regulate calcium metabolism.
If Part Of My Thyroid Is Surgically Removed Will The Other Part Be Able To Make Enough Thyroid Hormones To Keep Me Off Of Medication
Sometimes, your surgeon may be able to remove part of your thyroid and leave the other part so that it can continue to create and release thyroid hormones. This is most likely in situations where you have a nodule thats causing your thyroid problem. About 75% of people who have only one side of the thyroid removed are able to make enough thyroid hormone after surgery without hormone replacement therapy.
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Seeing A Private Endocrinologist
I did some research and chose to see an endocrinologist who specialised in thyroid disorders at my nearest Spire hospital. If you are looking for a recommendation for an endocrinologist, I would recommend look at the Health Unlocked Thyroid UK Forums.
I had my appointment in July and, in the end, I am glad that I pursued this. The endocrinologist that I saw was absolutely lovely and it was the most straightforward medical appointment I have ever had. Plus, she knew about and was sympathetic towardsmy Lyme disease diagnosis, which immediately put me at ease.
She explained the reason why the NHS wouldnt offer treatment and we discussed a plan of action. I had my blood retaken to make sure the results werent a one off. And, though things looked a little better than last time, we decided that it would be worth trying a small dose of thyroxine to see if it helps me.
I feel its important to say that I never stopped taking my herbs before this second blood test . For some reason, it just never occurred to me that I might have my blood retested.
I, therefore, dont know if things had naturally improved or if my herbs were making the situation that bit better. The test was also later in the day and I dont know if that has any influence.
Rachel Hill Thyroid Patient Advocate
Rachel Hill is the highly ranked and multi-award winning thyroid patient advocate, writer, speaker and author behind The Invisible Hypothyroidism. Her thyroid advocacy work includes writing articles, authoring books, producing her Thyroid Family email newsletters and speaking on podcasts, as well as being a founding board member for the;American College of Thyroidology. She is well-recognised as a crucial contributor to the thyroid community and has a large social media presence. Her books include “Be Your Own Thyroid Advocate” and “You, Me and Hypothyroidism”.
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Diagnosis Of Thyroid Disorders
The appropriate evaluation of thyroid disease starts with a complete history and physical exam. Blood work is obtained, and depending on the specific problem, an ultrasound of the thyroid may be performed to look for nodules or other abnormalities. Other imaging tests that may be ordered include CT scans, MRIs, or nuclear medicine studies such as radioiodine and PET scans. If a thyroid nodule or other abnormality is detected, your doctor may recommend a biopsy done with a small needle .
Incidence And Diagnosis Of Graves’ Disease
Graves’ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and other causes are uncommon or, indeed, rare . For reasons that remain unknown, it is much commoner in women, particularly those aged 3050. It affects approximately 3% women and 0.3% men. The family history indicates a genetic predisposition to autoimmune disease. In , the patient’s mother had had Graves’ disease and her sister pernicious anemia . The exact nature of this genetic predilection remains uncertain but experimental studies have suggested linkage with a number of other genes. These include a linkage with certain histocompatibility complex genes and associations with other diseases that are characterized by markers of autoimmunity, suggesting a primary genetic defect in immune function. The familial associations include pernicious anemia, Sjogren’s syndrome, Addison’s disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus and primary biliary cirrhosis.
There are three types of drugs used to inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis and release.
High doses of anti-thyroid drugs are initially prescribed to patients with Graves’ disease and the dose gradually reduced whilst aiming to keep the patient euthyroid. Alternatively some clinicians use the block and replace regimen in which patients are maintained on high doses of anti-thyroid drugs with replacement thyroxine as appropriate.
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More About Diagnosing Thyroid Diseases
Val Jones, MD, is the CEO of GetBetterHealth.com , a compilation of the best of the medical blogs. A transcript and the full audio podcast of this conversation can be found there.
When To Be More Proactive
Although most thyroid nodules are benign, some can harbor thyroid cancer. And some types of thyroid cancer are more aggressive than others. You should be more proactive in seeing an endocrinologist if you have any of the following symptoms:;
- A lump in your neck that appears to be growing
- Swelling or pain in the neck
- Hoarse voice
- Persistent cough
- Trouble breathing or swallowing;
Also see an endocrinologist if you have been diagnosed with a thyroid nodule and have any of the following risk factors for thyroid cancer:
- An immediate family member who was diagnosed with thyroid cancer
- Any kind of radiation exposure, especially to the head and neck area
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Prevalence And Etiology Of Benign Nodular Disease
Studies of populations have indicated that multinodular thyroids occur in around 5% of the population with a marked female preponderance . Autopsy studies have indicated a much higher incidence of nodular thyroid disease, indeed up to 50%, with multinodular disease outnumbering single nodules by about 4 to 1. The incidence increases markedly in people over 50 years of age. It is much higher in areas of iodine deficiency indicating the importance of iodine in the etiology of nodularity.
The etiology of benign nodular disease is not well understood although in some cases it is due to activating mutations of the TSH receptor or G-protein signalling system . When such activating mutations of the TSH receptor are in the germ line these will be passed on to succeeding generations appearing as familial hyperthyroidism.
The clinical index of a nodule, which makes no assumption of the underlying pathology, is the ability to detect one by palpation. Generally, this needs a lump 1 cm in diameter before it can be felt. However, if ultrasound scanning is used, it is more often than not that nodules some 23 mm in diameter are detected. The clinical relevance of such micronodularity detected on an ultrasound scan is very doubtful. However, the detection of a thyroid nodule by palpation raises the important clinical question; is the lump malignant?
Simple Test Straightforward Treatment
The good news: Most thyroid problems are easy to diagnose with a simple blood test that measures your level of thyroid hormone. “The test is very reliable and very sensitive,” says Hor.
Treatments are often very straightforward as well. Hypothyroidism is frequently treated with an inexpensive synthetic thyroid hormone that’s taken orally and is usually very well tolerated.
Hyperthyroidism treatments are more varied but might include 12 to 18 months of an oral medication or a one-time dose of radioactive iodine .
Bottom line: “If youre feeling fine and your weight is stable, there’s no need to get checked,” says Hor. “But if you notice one or more of these symptoms, or if you have a family history of thyroid dysfunction, ask your primary care doctor whether you should be tested.”
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Top Five Reasons To See An Endocrinologist
There are specialty doctors that are trained to diagnose and treat an array of diseases that affect an individuals glands and hormone secretions. These specialty doctors are called endocrinologists, and they play vital roles in their communities. Provided below is a list of the top five reasons to see an endocrinologist.
These glands secrete hormones, which play an essential role in an array of activities that are important to proper body function. Sometimes, an individuals glands and hormones do not function properly, and this can lead to a variety of health problems.
Endocrinology is an area of study concerning the endocrine system, which is a complex system of glands and hormones. The endocrine glands include the thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pituitary, hypothalamus, and adrenals.
Thyroid Disease Is Treated By Who
Thyroid disease and its symptoms can be managed by a variety of physicians. Some patients only see one doctor for thyroid disorders. While others manage their ailment with the help of a medical team. You should think about the following categories of doctors:
Doctors that specialize on primary care
Thyroidologists or endocrinologists
Naturopaths and chiropractors are among the holistic thyroid practitioners.
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When Do People Typically See A Thyroid Specialist
Dr. Mandagere: ;Many of my patients come to see me for the first time because their primary doctor has diagnosed them with hypothyroidism. Because I specialize in the endocrine system, primary care physicians often refer their patients to me for further consultation and care.
I also see patients who are already being treated for hypothyroidism and their dose of medication changes or is fluctuating. Although these patients are still being treated by a primary doctor, they come to me for a second opinion or when their physician requests help to regulate medication or address persistent symptoms.
I enjoy partnering with many local physicians to ensure that our shared patients get the best care possible.
Some patients also come to me looking for a cure. Unfortunately, there is no cure for hypothyroidism at this point, but I talk with them about treatments that can restore adequate thyroid levels and reduce their symptoms.
Q&a With Dr Kelly Mandagere Endocrinologist
Hypothroidism can cause fatigue, slowed metabolism, difficulties concentrating, and depression.
As an endocrinologist, Dr. Kelly Mandagere is involved in studying, diagnosing and treating conditions of the;endocrine system. This network of glands and hormones has widespread effects on the body that include regulating growth, metabolism, reproduction, and sexual development.
Combining her credentials as an endocrinologist with a lifelong passion for the science of medicine, a special interest in biochemistry, and training as a nutritionist, Dr. Mandagere provides a unique understanding of endocrine conditions, including hypothyroidism. In this Boulder Medical Center Q&A session, Dr. Mandagere answers questions about her approach to understanding the causes of, and managing this complex and often challenging disorder.
Iodine Trapping And Thyroid Function
The active uptake of iodide by the follicular cells involves an energy-requiring transport mechanism which allows I- to be taken up from capillary blood against both a concentration and an electrical gradient in exchange for Na+ . This enables the thyroid gland to concentrate iodide 3050 times that of the circulating concentration and allows radioactive isotopes to be used to investigate patients with thyroid disease . Other ions such as bromide, chlorate or pertechnetate may also compete with I- for this uptake process and this has important clinical uses . On a normal daily iodide intake the thyroid gland clears approximately 20 ml of plasma iodide per minute.
Effect of pregnancy on thyroid gland physiology. Increased renal I- clearance . Increased serum TBG increasing total T4 and T3 concentrations .
Transport And Metabolism Of Thyroid Hormones
The iodothyronines are virtually insoluble in water and, once released from thyroglobulin, they are very rapidly bound to the plasma proteins, transthyretin , thyroxine-binding globulin and albumin. These vary in their capacity and affinity for T3 and T4 ; about 70% of circulating thyroid hormones are bound to TBG. Only a tiny fraction of released thyroid hormones exist in a free form in the circulation and this is in equilibrium with the bound forms of thyroid hormones. The free-hormone hypothesis states that it is only the free thyroid hormones that act on target cells. The bound forms are considered to act as a circulating reservoir. There remains controversy as to whether the ratio of bound to free hormone changes as blood passes through the capillary bed of an organ.
Assays for thyroid hormones may measure the total T4 or T3 or the respective free fractions. Any reduction of serum TBG concentration reduces the concentrations of total T4 and total T3. The feedback loop senses changes in free hormone concentration and TSH secretion is modulated to maintain this. Similar compensations occur when TBG concentrations increase, most commonly as a result of pregnancy or estrogen administration.
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