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What Organ System Is The Thyroid In

Surgery For Thyroid Cancer

Endocrinology | Thyroid Overview

Most people with thyroid cancer will have surgery. The type of surgery you have depends mainly on the type and stage of the cancer. It also depends on the . When planning surgery, your healthcare team will also consider other factors, such as your age and overall health.

Surgery may be done for different reasons. You may have surgery to:

  • completely remove the tumour
  • remove as much of the tumour as possible
  • relieve pain or other symptoms

The following types of surgery are used to treat thyroid cancer. You may also have other treatments before or after surgery.

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After A Diagnosis Of Thyroid Cancer

After a diagnosis of thyroid cancer you may feel disbelief, uncertainty, fear and anxiety. There is no right or wrong way to feel and experiencing a range of emotions is normal. While the most common types of thyroid cancers have a very good long-term prognosis, you may still feel shocked and confused. It may help to talk to family and friends about how you are feeling.

Ask your specialist to explain treatment options and any potential side effects and financial concerns. Take as much time as you can so that you can make well-informed decisions.

Why You Need A Thyroid Gland

T3 and T4 travel in your bloodstream to reach almost every cell in the body. The hormones regulate the speed with which the cells/metabolism work. For example, T3 and T4 regulate your heart rate and how fast your intestines process food. So if T3 and T4 levels are low, your heart rate may be slower than normal, and you may have constipation/weight gain. If T3 and T4 levels are high, you may have a rapid heart rate and diarrhea/weight loss. The effects of too much or too little T3 and T4 in your body are discussed in more detail in the next section.

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What Is Postpartum Thyroiditis

Postpartum thyroiditis, or inflammation of the thyroid after giving birth, affects 10% of women. It often goes undiagnosed because symptoms are much like the baby blues that may follow delivery. Women with postpartum thyroiditis may feel very tired and moody.

Postpartum thyroiditis typically happens in two phases, though not everyone with the condition goes through both phases:

  • The first phase starts 1 to 4 months after giving birth and typically last 1 to 2 months. In this phase, you may have because the damaged thyroid leaks thyroid hormones out into the bloodstream.
  • The second phase starts about 4 to 8 months after delivery and lasts 6 to 12 months. In this phase, you may have because the thyroid has lost most of its hormones or because the immune attack is over and the thyroid may recover later.

Communication Among Organ Systems

Thyroid Function: 101

Communication among organ systems is vital if they are to work together as a team. They must be able to respond to each other and change their responses as needed to keep the body in balance. Communication among organ systems is controlled mainly by the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system.

The autonomic nervous system is the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary functions. For example, the autonomic nervous system controls heart rate, blood flow, and digestion. You dont have to tell your heart to beat faster or to consciously squeeze muscles to push food through the digestive system. In fact, you dont have to even think about these functions at all. The autonomic nervous system orchestrates all the signals needed to control them. It sends messages between parts of the nervous system and between the nervous system and other organ systems via chemical messengers called neurotransmitters.

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S Of The Endocrine System

Many glands make up the endocrine system. The hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and pineal gland are in your brain. The thyroid and parathyroid glands are in your neck. The thymus is between your lungs, the adrenals are on top of your kidneys, and the pancreas is behind your stomach. Your ovaries or testes are in your pelvic region.

Why Home Remedies For Thyroid

Some benefits of using home or natural remedies for treating thyroid are:

  • Minimal to no side-effects at all.
  • Easy to incorporate into everyday lifestyle.
  • Regulates the thyroid gland and also treats related symptoms.

Did You Know?

Thyroid hormone regulates the bodys metabolism, and fluctuations in this hormone level can lead to lower metabolism and weight gain.

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The Future Of Thyroid Cancer Treatment

My hope for the future is that we will have better information about which forms of thyroid cancer will be aggressive and which ones will stay stable. No thyroid cancer will go away on its own, but this information will help us better determine which patients we should treat and which ones we can safely monitor.

One day, more research and more data may make that possible. For now, given what we know about thyroid cancer and its outcomes, Ill continue to recommend surgery for my patients when safe and possible.

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Thyroid Hormone Production And Regulation

Thyroid Gland, Hormones and Thyroid Problems, Animation

The thyroid gland produces the hormonesthyroxine, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin. Thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine are produced by thyroid folliclar cells. Thyroid cells absorb iodine from certain foods and combine the iodine with tyrosine, an amino acid, to make thyroxine and triiodothyronine . The hormone T4 has four atoms of iodine, while T3 has three atoms of iodine. T4 and T3 regulate metabolism, growth, heart rate, body temperature, and affect protein synthesis. The hormone calcitonin is produced by thyroid parafollicular cells. Calcitonin helps to regulate calcium concentrations by lowering blood calcium levels when the levels are high.

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How Is Subacute Thyroiditis Treated

If youre diagnosed with subacute thyroiditis, your doctor will give you medications to help reduce the pain and control inflammation. In some cases, this is the only treatment required for subacute thyroiditis. Possible medications include:

  • Over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs . Medications like aspirin and ibuprofen work by reducing inflammation. As a result, you will experience less pain. Acetaminophen is not as effective because it doesnt reduce the inflammation thyroiditis causes.
  • Corticosteroids. Corticosteroids are used when NSAIDs arent enough to reduce swelling. Prednisone is a common corticosteroid used to treat subacute thyroiditis. Your doctor may prescribe 15 to 30 milligrams per day to start, and then slowly decrease the dosage over three to four weeks.
  • Beta-blockers. Your doctor may prescribe beta-blockers if hyperthyroidism is present in the early stages. These medications lower blood pressure and pulse rate to relieve certain symptoms, including anxiety and an irregular heartbeat.

Treatment for hyperthyroidism is important at the beginning of the disease. However, it will not be helpful once your condition progresses into the second phase. During the later stages of the disease, youll develop hypothyroidism. Youll probably need to take hormones such as levothyroxine to replace the ones that your body isnt producing.

How Is Postpartum Thyroiditis Treated

Treatment for postpartum thyroiditis depends on the phase of the disease and what symptoms you have. For example, if you get symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the first phase, your treatment may include medicines to slow down the heart rate.

In most women who have postpartum thyroiditis, the thyroid returns to normal within 12 to 18 months after symptoms start. But if you have a history of postpartum thyroiditis, your risk is higher for developing permanent hypothyroidism within 5 to 10 years.

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How Can I Check The Health Of My Own Thyroid

More About this Book

Important: This content reflects information from various individuals and organizations and may offer alternative or opposing points of view. It should not be used for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. As always, you should consult with your healthcare provider about your specific health needs.

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How The Bodies Systems Are Affected By Hypothyroidism:

Symptoms Signs Thyroid Disease *** For more information ...

Respiratory system

Hypothyroidism weakens the muscles used in breathing, making the lungs work less effectively. As a result, one may feel short of breath or even have trouble exercising. Also, sleep apnea which is pauses in your breathing while sleeping, this can also occur after thyroidectomy.

Digestive system


Dry skin or split nails among other things can be the direct result of an underactive thyroid. Your thyroid produces hormones that are able to influence how much the blood vessels dilate, this can also affect how much heat escapes the body making the patient heat intolerant or very cold. Patients with hypothyroidism complain of both sensations whereas patients with hyperthyroidism complain of heat intolerance or always feeling hot.

With additional symptoms like:

Dry skin with deep cracks and scale

Deep, noticeable lines on your palms and soles

Yellowish-orange color on your palms and soles

Doughy appearance and swollen face, especially on your eyelids, lips, and tongue

Flushing on your face and red palms

Darker skin in the creases of your palms, on your gums, or elsewhere in your mouth

Rashes, especially in the creases of your skin

Reddish spots or bumps on the skin that come and go


The Eyes

Reproductive system

Women suffering from hypothyroidism may have irregular, heavy or missed menstrual flow. They can also have difficulty getting pregnant or even when they do get pregnant, miscarriage can occur.

Your Brain


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Things That Can Go Wrong

Too much or too little of any hormone can be harmful to your body. For example, if the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone, a teen may grow excessively tall. If it produces too little, a teen may be unusually short. Doctors can often treat problems with the endocrine system by controlling the production of hormones or replacing certain hormones with medication.

Endocrine problems that can affect teens include:

Adrenal insufficiency. This condition occurs when the adrenal glands dont produce enough corticosteroids. The symptoms of adrenal insufficiency may include weakness, fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, dehydration, and skin changes. Doctors treat adrenal insufficiency with medications to replace corticosteroid hormones.

Type 1 diabetes. When the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin, type 1 diabetes occurs. In kids and teens, type 1 diabetes is usually an autoimmune disorder, which means that some parts of the bodys immune system attack and destroy the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin. To control their blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of developing diabetes problems, kids and teens with this condition need regular injections of insulin.

Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MDDate reviewed: March 2012

Note: All information on KidsHealth is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor.

Baylor College Of Medicine Blog Network

Spring is here! Arent we so glad to be out of winter?

With seasonal changes, people often experience upper respiratory infections, allergies or a cold, which may result in voice changes that can last up to two weeks.

You may ask yourself, If I have a cold or allergy, how can this affect my voice?

The same allergies that affect your nose can affect your voice. The upper respiratory tract or sinus system is connected to your larynx by postnasal drip.

Postnasal drip is the collection of secretions that drip down the back of your nose.

These secretions can drip directly onto your vocal cords and cause irritation, pitch changes , altered vocal range , decreased resonance, throat pain, cough and increased risk of hemorrhage of vocal folds.

What can you do to protect your voice when colds, allergies or sinusitis arise? Try to:

Preventative care can make you healthy year round. If your voice has not improved two weeks after suffering a cold or allergy, you may want to consider a visit an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist.

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How To Stop Hibernating And Start Sleeping Deeply

Are you sleeping or are you hibernating?

Unfortunately for most hypothyroidism sufferers, its the latter of the two.

And this is why you might feel tired no matter how much sleep you get.

Hypothyroidism affects sleep in ways other than just keeping you awake.

It affects your ability to achieve deep restful sleep too.

Weve all heard of hibernation.

In order for many animals to survive the harsh winter months, they go into a state of hibernation in order to lower their metabolism, conserve energy, and survive the cold.

But hibernation is not a form of restful sleep.

As Dr. Raymond Peat points out

Torpor is the opposite of restful sleep, and with aging, depression, hypothyroidism, and a variety of brain syndromes, sleep tends toward the hypothermic torpor.

In other words, hypothyroidism is known to promote a hibernation-like state of sleep that prevents you from reaching the deep sleep state that you need to wake up feeling refreshed.

Instead you wake up feeling like you never went to sleep in the first place.

And it has everything to do with your metabolism.

When you become hypothyroid, your otherwise healthy oxidative metabolism becomes impaired preventing your body from producing the essential nutrient carbon dioxide.

And when your carbon dioxide level falls, your serotonin production rises.

And its this rise in serotonin that decreases energy production, lowers body temperature, and promotes torpor, or this hibernation-like state of sleep.

So what can you do?

Never Ignore Your Body

The Thyroid Gland | Complete Anatomy

The above symptoms are only some of the indications you may see by examining your tongue. The most important tool for supporting health is your body. Learn to pay attention to your body and listen when it talks to you. If your tongue hurts, theses issues have lasted for longer than two weeks or you have notices other changes in your mouth or tongue in addition then it might be vital that you see a doctor. Things going on with your tongue could be a sign that you are suffering from another illness that will require treatment to cure. Your doctor will also give you advice regarding diet and lifestyle changes that you can take on to help prevent tongue issues.

You should contact your doctor about a swollen tongue in the following circumstances:

  • The swelling of the tongue is so severe that it blocks your airways.
  • You have a scalloped tongue for more than 10 days.
  • Normal activities like breathing, eating, speaking, and chewing cause problems.
  • The tongue swelling is very bad.

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What Increases My Risk For A Thyroid Goiter

A lack of iodine in the foods you eat is the most common cause of a thyroid goiter. The following may increase your risk:

  • Autoimmune thyroid disorders, such as Grave disease or Hashimoto disease
  • Medical conditions, such as cancer, a thyroid infection, or a thyroid cyst
  • Medicines used to treat mood disorders
  • A family history of a thyroid goiter
  • Pregnancy that causes your body to create more hormones

Organs Of The Endocrine System


The endocrine system is a collection of glands. These glands secrete a variety of hormones, which travel to specific target organs via the bloodstream. Hormones have specific functions such as regulating growth, metabolism, temperature and reproductive development. Like the nervous system, the endocrine system acts as a signaling pathway, although hormones are slower acting than nerve impulses.

Endocrine signals can last from a few hours to a few weeks. The main control center for the organs in the endocrine system is the hypothalamus in the brain. The field of medicine concerned with the endocrine system is known as endocrinology.

This article will discuss all of the important anatomical and functional aspects of endocrine system.

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What Medications Treat Hypothyroid

Levothyroxine is the most common prescription used to treat hypothyroidism. This medication is also known by several brand names, including:

Whether your healthcare provider prescribes the generic or brand name, these medications help to replace the thyroid hormone your body isnt naturally producing in your blood.

It may take some time to find the right medication, or dosage that works for youand once youve figured out your treatment plan, certain things can mess with how the prescription works for you.

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Is Turmeric Good For Goiter

Development of the Endocrine System

Subclinical hypothyroidism is when your TSH is mildly elevated, but your thyroxine is normal. Furthermore, one study found that consuming daily turmeric may reduce the growth of goiters in the study population. A goiter is when the thyroid gland becomes enlarged and is a symptom of both hyper- and hypothyroidism.

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How Is Hypothyroidism Diagnosed

Contact your doctor if you have symptoms of an underactive thyroid. He or she will do a blood test to measure the amount of thyroid hormone and TSH in your blood. This confirms the diagnosis.

Some doctors recommend screening older women for hypothyroidism during routine physical exams. Some also recommend screening women who are pregnant or trying to become pregnant. This is because low amounts of the thyroid hormone can play a role in infertility.

Whats It Really Like To Be Radioactive

When one of the last people you will see for days is dressed in a spacesuit-a Caution Radiation sticker on his back-and has a Geiger counter hanging from his belt, you know this is not going to be an ordinary experience. Though I had been relatively upbeat since my thyroid cancer diagnosis-throughout testing and treatment that had included sonogram, biopsy, malignancy diagnosis, surgery, and now an increasing feeling of weakness and disorientation from an ever-slowing metabolism as I prepared for radioiodine therapy-the reality of my situation really hit me when that heavy hospital door shut with a deep thud and my days of isolation began. I was alone and scared, with radioactive iodine running through my veins.

When I was settled in the hospital room that would be my cloister for three full days, Mr. Caution Radiation handed me a cocktail of radioactive iodine to chug-the same stuff that circled the globe after the Chernobyl meltdown in 1986. I heard clicking noises from the Geiger counterlike machine called a Keithley meter as the radiation safety officer measured my rooms radioactivity while inching closer to the door. He stuck tape to the floor and labeled it with the various levels to warn the nurses. Then it hit me: Im radioactive!

A rare side effect in men who receive a high dose of I-131 is loss of fertility. In women I-131 is not known to cause fertility loss, but some doctors advise women to avoid pregnancy for one year after a high dose of I-131.4

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