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What Does Your Thyroid Gland Control

Are There Different Types Of Thyroid Removal Surgery

Environmental Factors That Can Affect Your Thyroid Gland

If your healthcare provider determines that your thyroid needs to be removed, there are a couple of ways that can be done. Your thyroid may need to be completely removed or just partially. This will depend on the severity of your condition. Also, if your thyroid is very big or has a lot of growths on it, that could prevent you from being eligible for some types of surgery.

The surgery to remove your thyroid is called a thyroidectomy. There are two main ways this surgery can be done:

  • With an incision on the front of your neck.
  • With an incision in your armpit.

The incision on the front of your neck is more of the traditional version of a thyroidectomy. It allows your surgeon to go straight in and remove the thyroid. In many cases, this might be your best option. You may need this approach if your thyroid is particularly big or has a lot of larger nodules.

Alternatively, there is a version of the thyroid removal surgery where your surgeon makes an incision in your armpit and then creates a tunnel to your thyroid. This tunnel is made with a special tool called an elevated retractor. It creates an opening that connects the incision in your armpit with your neck. The surgeon will use a robotic arm that will move through the tunnel to get to the thyroid. Once there, it can remove the thyroid back through the tunnel and out of the incision in your armpit.

  • Are not at a healthy body weight.
  • Have large thyroid nodules.
  • Have a condition like thyroiditis or Gravess disease.

How Is Thyroid Surgery Performed

Thyroid surgery takes place in a hospital. Its important not to eat or drink anything after midnight before your surgery.

When you arrive at the hospital, youll check in and then go to a preparation area where youll remove your clothes and put on a hospital gown. A nurse will insert an IV in your wrist or your arm to administer fluids and medication.

Before surgery, youll meet with your surgeon. Theyll do a quick examination and answer any questions you may have about the procedure. Youll also meet with the anesthesiologist who will be administering the medicine that makes you sleep throughout the procedure.

When its time for surgery, youll enter the operating room on a gurney. The anesthesiologist will inject medicine into your IV. The medicine may feel cold or sting as it enters your body, but it will quickly put you into a deep sleep.

The surgeon will make an incision over the thyroid gland and carefully remove all or part of the gland. Because the thyroid is small and surrounded by nerves and glands, the procedure may take 2 hours or more.

Youll wake up in the recovery room, where the staff will make sure youre comfortable. Theyll check your vital signs and administer pain medication as needed. When youre in stable condition, theyll transfer you to a room where youll remain under observation for 24 to 48 hours.

How Is Thyroid Disease Diagnosed

Sometimes, thyroid disease can be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms are easily confused with those of other conditions. You may experience similar symptoms when you are pregnant or aging and you would when developing a thyroid disease. Fortunately, there are tests that can help determine if your symptoms are being caused by a thyroid issue. These tests include:

  • Blood tests.
  • Physical exams.

Blood tests

One of the most definitive ways to diagnose a thyroid problem is through blood tests. Thyroid blood tests are used to tell if your thyroid gland is functioning properly by measuring the amount of thyroid hormones in your blood. These tests are done by taking blood from a vein in your arm. Thyroid blood tests are used to see if you have:

  • Hyperthyroidism.
  • Hypothyroidism.

The specific blood tests that will be done to test your thyroid can include:

These tests alone arent meant to diagnose any illness but may prompt your healthcare provider to do additional testing to evaluate for a possible thyroid disorder.

Additional blood tests might include:

Talk to your healthcare provider about the ranges for these thyroid blood tests. Your ranges might not be the same as someone elses. Thats often alright. If you have any concerns or worries about your blood test results, talk to your provider.

Imaging tests

An ultrasound typically takes about 20 to 30 minutes.

Physical exam

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What Are The Symptoms Of Thyroid Cancer

You or your healthcare provider might feel a lump or growth in your neck called a thyroid nodule. Dont panic if you have a thyroid nodule. Most nodules are benign . Only about three out of 20 thyroid nodules turn out to be cancerous .

Other signs of thyroid cancer include:

What Could Go Wrong With The Thyroid Gland

Your thyroid controls your entire body (Here is how to ...

Normally the thyroid gland produces the exact number of hormones needed to keep your bodys metabolism running and in balance. As described earlier, hormones secreted by the pituitary gland stay constant in your blood circulation, but their levels may increase or decrease when T4 levels in the blood are changing. This hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid feedback loop keeps the levels of T4 in your blood stable and reacts to small changes immediately.

However, there are several disorders associated with the thyroid gland with most problems concerning the production of thyroid hormones. Either the thyroid gland produces too much hormone or your thyroid doesn’t produce enough hormone , resulting in your body using energy faster or slower than it should.

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How Do I Know If I Have Thyroid Nodules

Most thyroid nodules do not produce any symptoms. However, if you have several nodules, or large nodules, you may be able to see them. Although rare, nodules can press against other structures in the neck and cause symptoms, including:

Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules can lead to overproduction of thyroid hormones, also known as hyperthyroidism. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:

  • Irritability/nervousness

How Is Thyroid Cancer Managed Or Treated

Treatments for thyroid cancer depend on the tumor size and whether the cancer has spread. Treatments include:

  • Surgery: Surgery is the most common treatment for thyroid cancer. Depending on the tumors size and location, your surgeon may remove part of the thyroid gland or all of the gland . Your surgeon also removes any nearby lymph nodes where cancer cells have spread.
  • Radioiodine therapy: With radioiodine therapy, you swallow a pill or liquid containing a higher dose of radioactive iodine than whats used in a diagnostic radioiodine scan. The radioiodine shrinks and destroys the diseased thyroid gland along with cancer cells. Dont be alarmed this treatment is very safe. Your thyroid gland absorbs almost all of the radioiodine. The rest of your body has minimal radiation exposure.
  • Radiation therapy: Radiation kills cancer cells and stops them from growing. External radiation therapy uses a machine to deliver strong beams of energy directly to the tumor site. Internal radiation therapy involves placing radioactive seeds in or around the tumor.
  • Chemotherapy: Intravenous or oral chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells and stops cancer growth. Very few patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer will ever need chemotherapy.
  • Hormone therapy: This treatment blocks the release of hormones that can cause cancer to spread or come back.

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How Is Postpartum Thyroiditis Treated

Treatment for postpartum thyroiditis depends on the phase of the disease and what symptoms you have. For example, if you get symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the first phase, your treatment may include medicines to slow down the heart rate.

In most women who have postpartum thyroiditis, the thyroid returns to normal within 12 to 18 months after symptoms start. But if you have a history of postpartum thyroiditis, your risk is higher for developing permanent hypothyroidism within 5 to 10 years.

What Happens In Your Body

What Does Your Thyroid Do? 10 Important Functions You Should Know

Thyroid hormones have an impact on every cell and every organ. Specifically, T3 directly controls the production of various proteins made by your bodys cells. T3 does this by binding to a cells DNA.

Free T4 and free T3 circulating in your blood are available to immediately enter your bodys cells whenever they’re needed, for instance, when you’re cold or when your body is digesting food. Some of the intracellular T4 is converted to T3, and some of the T3 binds to specific T3-receptors in the nucleus of the cell. This bound T3 causes nuclear DNA to stimulate the production of specific proteins.

Among these proteins are various enzymes that, in turn, control the behavior of many important bodily functions mentioned above, such as how quickly your food is digested, your heart rate, body temperature, and how fast calories are burned.

Though thyroid hormones regulate DNA in this way in all cases, different cells in your body have different kinds of T3-nuclear receptors and in different concentrations. As such, the effect of T3 on a cell is quite variable from tissue to tissue and under various circumstances.

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Who Might Have Thyroid Cancer

Women are three times more likely than men to get thyroid cancer. The disease is commonly diagnosed in women in their 40s and 50s, and men in their 60s and 70s. Even children can develop the disease. Risk factors include:

  • Exposure to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons or a power plant accident.

Hashimoto’s Disease And Hypothyroidism

The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto’s disease. It’s an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the body’s own immune system attacks the thyroid and causes inflammation. This prevents the thyroid from making enough hormones, causing hypothyroidism.

Hashimoto’s disease often runs in families, and it affects women more than men. People with other autoimmune diseases are also more likely to get Hashimoto’s disease.

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Are There Any Risks To Hyperthyroidism Treatments

With most treatments, there are also risks of side effects. Its important to talk to your healthcare provider and weigh all of the pros and cons before deciding on a treatment plan. Some of these risks include:

After treatment, you will most probably need to take replacement thyroid hormone for the rest of your life. This is because some of these treatments especially surgery reduce your thyroid hormone levels to very low levels or eliminate this hormone by removing your thyroid. Youll need to re-introduce the thyroid hormones back into your system by taking regular medication.

What Are The Types Of Thyroiditis

Thyroid gland
  • Hashimotos thyroiditis: an autoimmune condition caused by anti-thyroid antibodies. This is the most common form of thyroiditis and is around five times more common in women than in men. Hashimotos thyroiditis usually results in hypothyroidism, and thyroid hormone replacement treatment is needed.
  • Silent thyroiditis or painless thyroiditis: another autoimmune disease caused by anti-thyroid antibodies. It is also common in women and the next common cause after Hashimotos thyroiditis.
  • Post-partum thyroiditis: an autoimmune condition caused by anti-thyroid antibodies that sometimes occurs shortly after a woman gives birth
  • Radiation-induced thyroiditis: a condition caused by external radiation used as a medical treatment for certain cancers, or by radioactive iodine used to treat hyperthyroidism
  • Subacute thyroiditis or de Quervains thyroiditis: an often painful condition thought to be caused by a virus
  • Acute thyroiditis or suppurative thyroiditis: a relatively rare condition caused by an infectious organism or bacterium
  • Drug-induced thyroiditis: a condition is caused by the use of drugs such as amiodarone, interferons, lithium, and cytokines. It only occurs in a small fraction of patients using the offending drugs, so it is not common in the normal population.

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How Does Thyroid Disease Affect Pregnancy

Pregnancy-related hormones raise the level of thyroid hormones in the blood. Thyroid hormones are necessary for the baby’s brain development while in the womb.

It can be harder to diagnose thyroid problems during pregnancy because of the change in hormone levels that normally happen during pregnancy. But it is especially important to check for problems before getting pregnant and during pregnancy. Uncontrolled hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism can cause problems for both mother and baby.

Hyperthyroidism that is not treated with medicine during pregnancy can cause:

  • Premature birth
  • a serious condition starting after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Preeclampsia causes high blood pressure and problems with the kidneys and other organs. The only cure for preeclampsia is childbirth.
  • Thyroid storm
  • Fast heart rate in the newborn, which can lead to heart failure, poor weight gain, or an enlarged thyroid that can make it hard to breathe
  • Low birth weight
  • Miscarriage

Treatment For Thyroid Gland Disorders

Problems with thyroid hormone levels can be diagnosed with a simple blood test. The presence of antibodies in the blood will confirm Graves or Hashimotos disease. Underactivity is treated by taking thyroxine tablets – a form of hormone replacement. Overactivity is treated with drugs that slow the activity of the thyroid gland. If these do not work, part or all of the thyroid can be removed surgically, or some or all of the active thyroid cells can be killed with radioactive iodine.Nodules and cancers are diagnosed with a variety of different tests, including ultrasound, special x-rays and fine needle biopsies. Hot nodules will generally be removed surgically or destroyed with radioactive iodine. Cold nodules are frequently left alone and simply kept under observation. Cancer is treated by surgically removing the thyroid gland, followed by treatment with radioactive iodine to destroy any cells which may have spread.Taking iodine supplements can be dangerous for patients with Graves disease or hot nodules.

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Can Hyperthyroidism Be Cured

Yes, there is a permanent treatment for hyperthyroidism. Removing your thyroid through surgery will cure hyperthyroidism. However, once the thyroid is removed, you will need to take thyroid hormone replacement medications for the rest of your life. Your body still needs thyroid hormones, just not at such high levels as you have in hyperthyroidism. Though you will need to regularly take the medication and check in with your healthcare provider regularly, this is a manageable form of thyroid disease which allows you to live a normal life.

What Is Hyperthyroidism

Doctor is In: Your Thyroid Gland

Hyperthyroidism is a condition where your thyroid creates and releases more hormones to your body than you need. This is also called an overactive thyroid. The main hormones made by the thyroid include triiodothyronine and thyroxine . Having hyperthyroidism can impact your entire body. Picture something related to the word hyper. Most likely, you just thought of something thats fast or full of a lot of energy. When you have hyperthyroidism, the extra hormones can speed up your metabolism. Metabolism is the process that transforms the food you put in your body into energy that helps your body function. When you have hyperthyroidism, your metabolism is launched into high-speed. This might cause you to feel your heart beating faster, experience anxiety and nervousness, and have an increased appetite.

Hyperthyroidism can affect your entire body and is a condition that needs to be treated by a healthcare provider.

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What Is Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer develops in the thyroid, a small butterfly-shaped gland at the base of your neck. This gland produces hormones that regulate your metabolism . Thyroid hormones also help control your body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate. Thyroid cancer, a type of endocrine cancer, is generally highly treatable with an excellent cure rate.

How To Control Thyroid

Thyroid is a gland with the shape of a butterfly and is located on the front of the neck and below the Adam’s apple along the front of the wind pipe. Rich with blood vessels, it is brownish-red in color. Important nerves that control voice quality pass through the thyroid. Hormones secreted by the thyroid are called thyroid hormones with thyroxin or T4 as the main hormone. The thyroid hormones act throughout the body and influence metabolism, growth, development and body temperature.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Thyroiditis

The symptoms of thyroiditis depend on the type of thyroiditis and phase of thyroiditis.

  • Hyperthyroid phase: Usually short lasting If cells are damaged quickly and there is a leak of excess thyroid hormone, you might show symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as:
  • Being worried
  • Increased sweating and heat intolerance
  • Anxiety and nervousness

What Complications Of Hyperthyroidism Can Affect My Body

19 visible signs the thyroidâs acting up

Hyperthyroidism can impact many parts of your body. Different systems, ranging from your vascular system to your skeletal system can all be affected if you have an overactive thyroid.

Heart

When you have hyperthyroidism, it may feel like your heart is beating very quickly. This rapid heartbeat is a symptom of the condition thats caused by your fast metabolism. The body is running faster than normal when you have hyperthyroidism, making you feel like your heart is racing. Having an irregular heartbeat can increase your risk of different medical conditions, including stroke.

Bones

The bones are the support structure for your body. When you have unchecked high levels of thyroid hormones, your bones can actually become brittle. This can lead to a condition called osteoporosis.

Eyes and Skin

Hyperthyroidism can be caused by a medical condition called Graves disease. This disease can affect both your eyes and skin. It can cause you to have several eye problems, including:

  • Bulging eyes.
  • Double vision and light sensitivity.
  • Redness and swelling of the eyes.

Graves disease can also cause your skin to become red and swollen. This is particularly noticeable on the feet and shins.

Another complication of hyperthyroidism is something called a thyroid storm . This is a sudden and dramatic increase in your symptoms. When this happens, your heart may beat even faster than normal and you may develop a fever. A thyroid storm is an emergency situation.

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