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What Does Increased Vascularity In Thyroid Mean

Is The Vascularity Of The Thyroid Gland Normal

How does the thyroid manage your metabolism? – Emma Bryce

1.0 cm. Vascularity appears to be diminished. Echotexture is normal. There is a 0.9 x 0.7 by 0.7 cm cyst in the lower pole of the gland. There are no microcalcifications. The margins are well-defined. There is no blood flow. 0.8 cm and 0.7 cm are noted. IMPRESSION: Colloid cysts on left lobe. Simple cyst right lobe of the thyroid gland.

Nodule In Upper Pole May Confer Malignancy Risk

Malignancy was observed most often in the superior region of the thyroid gland with 22% of nodules found in the upper lobes as compared to 14% in the middle pole, and just 5% in the inferior poles.1 Using a multiple logistic regression model to adjust for the number of thyroid nodules, age, sex, BMI, and laterality, a strong association between nodule location and presence of cancer was confirmed.

This study demonstrates that nodules located in the upper pole present a higher malignancy risk factor and, therefore, location of thyroid nodules may need to be included in ultrasound classification guidelines to enhance the predictive value of malignancy, diagnostic accuracy and reliability as an indicator to perform FNA, said Dr. Zang, in presenting his results.1

The investigators proposed that the reason for the increased risk of malignancy in the superior poles may be due to anatomy. For example, venous drainage is slower, which might cause a delay in clearing normal byproducts of metabolism, said Dr. Zang.


Benign Thyroid Nodules: How Long Should We Follow?

Thyroid nodules are commonly detected among 65% of the US population. With the population aging, clinicians will likely find 50-75 million thyroid nodules of which 500,000 will be biopsied, and 90% will be benign and 95% will be benign and remain asymptomatic.2

Size Should Not Inform Management Strategy But Symptoms Warrant Action

For multiple nodules, the recommendation is to follow the guidelines for ultrasound evaluation. Importantly, size is a poor predictor for large nodules, particularly those that extend beyond the screen. If all nodules are similar on sonography, biopsy the largest one however, its more important to identify the highest risk nodule to biopsy rather than the largest one. Another caveat: rule out a substernal goiter , which should be referred for surgery.4

Nontoxic goiter with symptoms such as globus sensation , respiratory symptoms dyspnea on exertion, or dysphasia or those with positional stridor, Pembertons sign, superior vena cava syndrome, or result in voice changes should be referred to surgery,4 Dr. Lee said.

Treatment for simple, nontoxic goiter will depend on the presence of any symptoms, if any, size, location, any compression of trachea but when with concerns, management should be to monitor for growth and development of hyperthyroidism.7

Treatment of goiter with levothyroxine is no longer recommended as results have been mixed and there is significant risk of TSH suppression with adverse effects on bone, particularly in postmenopausal women, and increased risk for cardiovascular disease.7 Of note, diffuse goiters appeared to respond more favorably to treatment than discrete nodules.

Radioactive iodine may be considered to manage lesser symptoms and for those who are not candidates for surgery.8 Recent radiograph studies support the use of iodinated contrast dye.

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Thyroid : : 25 Cm Nodule

I am a 21 year old female college student. About a month and a half ago, I noticed a large lump in my throat that moved up and down when I swallowed. Slightly concerned, I made an appointment at my university health center, where they drew blood and my thyroid levels came back normal After visiting my primary doctor, I had an ultrasound done that showed a 2.5cm nodule on my isthmus with 2 tiny on either side which aren’t palpable or visible and I didn’t realize I had. The report also said there is increased vascularity, or blood flow, to the area which my endo said could be cancerous or it could just be because the nodule is large with extra blood flow to the area. I have my biopsy scheduled for next week to determine what type of nodule the 2.5 cm one is To be honest, I’m scared of the results. I have always been healthy other than the occasional common cold, so this is something that really took me by surprise. For those who are going through or have gone through this, what was your experience with the fine needle biopsy like? If your nodule was benign, did you still get it removed just in case? I just turned 21 with a lot of life plans ahead of me and I am scared that due to its increased size, it could be cancer.

Thyroid Removal Nodule 33cm And Couple Of Small On Right

Graves disease

The large nodule takes up almost all of the left side of the thyroid whereas in the right side there are a couple of small nodules…about .2cm …Quick questions…is there an alternative to the op? Surgeon has said he will try to save some of the thyroid but it’s might not be possible….he said it could be dangerous and we should take it out…no pain, discovered by accident….advice please?

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Evolving Care Of Thyroid Nodules: Improving Cancer Detection Determining Need For Active Surveillance

With Fan Zhang, MD, PhD, and Stephanie L. Lee, MD, PhD

In the evolving care of patients with thyroid nodules, two key recommendations were highlighted to promote improved detection and treatment of thyroid cancer during the AACE 2018, the 27th Annual AACE Scientific and Clinical Congress held from May 17 to 20, 2018, in Boston, Massachusetts. pertaining to thyroid assessment and length of time needed for monitoring.

The two new strategies for clinical consideration: the location of malignancy in the thyroid gland and which thyroid nodules necessitate monitoring.1,2

Ultrasound Classification : The Normal Thyroid

US is a safe, fast and comfortable method for evaluating the thyroid gland and regional anatomy. A high-resolution probe between 10 and 15 MHz should be used to examine the neck. The patient should be lying supine and the neck in a slightly hyper-extended position to fully expose the anterior neck. A semi-erect position is acceptable if the patient is unable to tolerate the preferred posture. Before anyone can become adept in identifying abnormalities, it is critical to become familiar with the normal sonographic appearance of the thyroid gland relative to surrounding structures.

For anyone performing US examination of the neck, a sound knowledge of the normal anatomy and a systemic scanning approach are prerequisites for confidently identifying and fully characterising thyroid nodules.

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Thyroid : : Nodule Or Gerd

Had an ultrasound done after finding a lump in my throat. It is a mixed cystic and solid thyroid nodule 2.7cm x 1.6cm x 1.9cm which demonstrates peripheral vascularity, appears nearly isoechoic to thyroid gland and is partially surrounded by a hypoechoic halo or rim. My family dr sent me to ENT who I saw today. He didn’t say much about nodule except for he would like to biopsy it in 2 weeks. After asking me a series of questions he also wants to rule out GERDS. He also wants to repeat an antibodies test I had done back in May when I was having hypo symptoms. No antibodies and was on higher range for hypo, 3.75 and 3.99 . I also had a saliva test back in May and revealed I had very low below the range of cortisol in morning, noon and lowest range for afternoon and midnight. I have had some changing in my throat. Kind of sore a lot and a constant phlegm and cough, which I guess GERDS does from what ENT said. What does he think about nodule?

Thyroid Disorders : : Nodule Affecting Swallowing

What Does High Metabolism Mean?

I’ve been very disturbed and anxious with the condition of my wife. She’s 24, gave birth to our first born 3 mos. ago, 4’9 in height and about 136 lbs. A month ago we noticed a lump at the right site of her neck just about half an inch from her adam’s apple. The we decided to consult to an internist and instructed to do a thyroid ultrasound immediately. The result says that there is a small nodule in the right side of her thyroid gland, “a cyst” but her endocrinologist says that all his patients with the same diagnosis didn’t have cancerous ones. My wife was given oral medications for about 3 months, one I can recall is the Levothyroxine.Despite the doctor’s calmness and no sense of urgency I can’t help but to worry about my wife’s condition. She finds it difficult to swallow food and sometimes feel little aching on that part of her neck.I’ve always thought that eastern medical practices are different from that in the west. And if I am right I’d like to consult here with somebody who can give us some advice on what to do/eat naturally and what to avoid.

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Thyroid Nodules: Get More Information From Your Ultrasound

What I did before

Thyroid nodules found on physical examination are common. It is estimated that up to 7% of adults in the United States have a palpable thyroid nodule . Fewer than 5% of these nodules are malignant . In accordance with the most recent guidelines of the American Thyroid Association , I obtain a TSH in patients with a thyroid nodule. If the TSH is low, the patient should be investigated for hyperthyroidism using a radioactive iodine scan. In absence of any worrisome features on history or physical exam , a hyper functioning nodule on a scan has a very low probability of being malignant . However, patients with palpable nodules and normal or high TSH require an ultrasound and a great deal of useful information can be gained from the imaging.

Table 1. Clinical Findings Suggesting the Diagnosis of Thyroid Carcinoma in a Solitary Nodule, According to the Degree of Suspicion
High Suspicion
  • History of head and neck irradiation
  • A nodule > 4 cm in diameter or partially cystic
  • Symptoms of compression, including dysphagia, dysphonia, hoarseness, dyspnea and cough

Indeterminate results present a diagnostic dilemma: based on history and other ultrasound or pathological findings, some patients are referred for surgery while others are monitored. It is inevitable that some patients with indeterminate results may undergo surgery and be found to have benign pathology. However, the rate of unnecessary surgery can be reduced using ultrasound and genetic tools.

What I do now

Ultrasound Helps Reveal Vascular Patterns In Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid nodules with dominant central vascularization have a greater chance of being malignant. The vascularization of thyroid nodules can be a complementary criterion in indication of the nodule for fine-needle aspiration, according to studies presented at the 2005 European Congress of Radiology meeting.

Thyroid nodules with dominant central vascularization have a greater chance of being malignant. The vascularization of thyroid nodules can be a complementary criterion in indication of the nodule for fine-needle aspiration, according to studies presented at the 2005 European Congress of Radiology meeting.

Dr. Maria Cristina Chammas and colleagues from the Medical University of São Paulo in Brazil evaluated 177 nodules by B-mode scanning, power Doppler, and spectral analysis. They related the results to the cytological findings of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration.

Nodular analysis with color Doppler was classified in five vascular patterns:

  • I: no vascularization
  • III: perilesional vascularization greater than or equal to central vascularization
  • IV: central vascularization greater than perilesional vascularization
  • V: only central vascularization

Spectral analysis considered the resistive index , and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed.

The echogenicity parameter did not present significant statistical association at the univariate analysis. Only at the multivariate analysis was it really identified as significant.

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Considering The Clinical Approach To Surveillance

For the patient with a benign thyroid nodule, what criteria will best inform the need to discontinue active surveillance? Dr. Lee offered four factors to inform clinical decision-making:

  • Results of fine needle aspiration biopsy
  • Lack of growth defined as > 50% change in volume or > 20% increase in at least 2 dimensions of a solid nodule or solid portion of a cystic nodule
  • Indeterminate cytology and benign molecular test findings
  • How does presence multiple nodes change the course of surveillance?

In doing an initial assessment of thyroid nodules, certain imaging features such as spongiform or cystic appearance suggest a benign nodule whereas solid composition, irregular margins, the presence of microcalcifications or solid formation would suggest the need for further cytological evaluation, 3,4 said Dr. Lee. The estimated risk of malignancy and the presence of symptoms, particularly compressive symptomatology are indicative of the need for further management.

Medical management of goiters and benign cytology on ultrasound and molecular markers rule out malignancy with a risk of error of 1-3% with errors. Those patients rarely have thyroid cancer, and 80% of nodules over five years are stable or smaller with growth a very poor predictor of malignancy, she told EndocrineWeb.

For nodules deemed spongiform or pure cyst on ultrasound, less than 1 cm with no suspicious features, the new recommendation is not to biopsy at all, and do not require routine ultrasound surveillance.5,6,

Response To Suspicious Appearance On Ultrasound

Colour Doppler image of malignant thyroid nodule show ...

Despite benign biopsy findings, those thyroid nodules with high suspicion should have a repeat ultrasound and FNA biopsy within one year for indeterminate nodules or those with some suspicion of malignancy,5 the recommendation is to repeat the biopsy or continue active surveillance for growth or detection of new suspicious feature at 12 to 24 months. As for nodules with a very low level of suspicion, the value of surveillance ultrasound is limited at best,2 said Dr. Lee.

If the second biopsy returns a benign cytology, then a repeat ultrasound is no longer indicated 2 however, in my patients, I would likely follow the nodule for growth around 18 to 24 months, Dr. Lee said.

Tumor Growth and Compressive Symptoms

Growth is not associated with thyroid cancer,3,4 said Dr. Lee. A rule of thumb, is thyroid nodules that tend not to grow are usually those which are small or large .3,4 Also, spongiform characteristics predict a benign nodule in comparison to nodules with suspicious features, based on results of a four-year, retrospective study in which 10 nodules were found to be cancerous out of a total of 854 evaluated.4

Another important tip for clinicians. Stay connected to your scans to better advise your patient, said Dr. Lee. The tech does the radiography, and the radiologist may read the findings but neither has ever met your patient so by viewing the scan yourself, you can more confidently respond to patients questions and address any concerns directly, she said.

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Ultrasound Classification : Suspicious Thyroid Nodule

Thyroid nodules in this category are considered to be suspicious for malignancy, and all these nodules should be further investigated with FNAC . The first distinctive feature of these suspicious nodules is their hypo-echogenicity . The echo signals of the nodule or part of the nodule are less than the surrounding normal thyroid tissue and sometimes lower than the nearby muscle . It is important to note that these nodules are hypo-echogenic, but they are also predominantly solid in consistency. This property makes their echo signals higher than those of a cystic nodule, which is dark and echo-free. On a spectrum from highest to lowest likelihood of malignancy, predominantly solid nodules have the highest risk, while mixed solid/cystic sit in the middle, and cystic or spongiform have the lowest risk . Furthermore, the suspicious nodule may have disrupted eggshell calcification around the peripheries or lost its smooth round contour, and adopted a lobulated margin . A U4 thyroid nodule is hypo-echogenic, with an irregular outline and possible disrupted calcification at the edges.

Us And Smi Evaluation

All US and SMI investigations were performed by a pediatric radiologist with 11 years experience in the use of US and three years experience in SMI. All participants had thyroid gland assessed with B-mode imaging and SMI with a high-frequency linear sequence transducer on a Canon Aplio 500 device . Investigations began with participants in the supine position, neck slightly extended for standard grayscale US examination. The three dimensions of both thyroid lobes were measured in millimeters. The thyroid gland volume was separately calculated for the right and left lobes using formula L × W × H × 0.523 automatically with the software included in the US device . The total of the right and left lobe volumes was defined as total thyroid volume, with isthmus volume not included.

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Ultrasound Classification : Malignant Thyroid Nodule

When assessing a thyroid nodule, it is important to note that malignant lesions are rare. The incidence of the disease is 24 cases per 100,000 persons per year . The most prevalent form of thyroid cancer is papillary thyroid cancer , followed by follicular , medullary and anaplastic thyroid cancers . The survival rate for thyroid cancer in general is better than for other forms of cancer. For papillary thyroid cancer, the 20-year survival after surgery is around 99% .

Fig. 6

The thyroid nodule in the left lobe consists of colloids with their characteristic comet-tail shadowing . However, it is hypo-echoic with an echo signal close to the adjacent strap muscle. Power Doppler shows marked intra-nodular vascularity. Multiple sinister characteristics of the nodule put it between U4 and U5, which require FNAC

Us Definition And Description Of Thyroid Nodule

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The echotexture of the normal thyroid is usually homogeneous and bright. A thyroid nodule is defined as a discrete lesion within the thyroid gland that is ultrasonographically distinct from the surrounding thyroid parenchyma . A nodule usually differs from a pseudonodule for being always clearly distinguishable in both transverse and longitudinal planes.

In our opinion, a standardized and systematic description of US features of thyroid lesions makes the reports objective and more comparable over time. Moreover, a systematic report reduces the possibility of missing the description of some important thyroid lesions features. Therefore, if possible, US reports should always document position, extracapsular relationships, number and the following characteristics of each lesion: shape, internal content, echogenicity, echotexture, presence of calcifications, margins, vascularity, hardness, and size.

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