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What Body System Is The Thyroid In

Will Hypothyroidism Make Me Gain Weight

Thyroid, small but vital gland in the body system

If your hypothyroidism is not treated, you could gain weight. Once you are treating the condition, the weight should start to lower. However, you will still need to watch your calories and exercise to lose weight. Talk to your healthcare provider about weight loss and ways to develop a diet that works for you.

How Can Chemicals Affect The Endocrine System

Scientific research on human epidemiology, laboratory animals, and fish and wildlife suggests that environmental contaminants can disrupt the endocrine system leading to adverse-health consequences. It is important to gain a better understanding of what concentrations of chemicals found in the environment may cause an adverse effect. Various types of scientific studies are necessary to resolve many of the scientific questions and uncertainty surrounding the endocrine disruptor issue. Many such studies are currently underway by government agencies, industry, and academia.

Learn more with EDSP about concerns and examples of endocrine disruption.

Who Tells The Thyroid To Produce And Release Hormones

The signal comes from a small gland located at the bottom of our brain called the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland produces and sends out a hormone called thyroid-stimulating hormone . TSH then tells the thyroid gland how much hormones to produce and secrete. TSH levels in your blood are rising and falling depending on your bodys needs to produce more or less thyroid hormones.

There is a third actor involved in this communication. The pituitary gland responds either directly to the thyroid hormones in the blood, but it also responds to signals from the hypothalamus, which sits above the pituitary gland as part of your brain. The hypothalamus releases its own hormone thyrotropin-releasing hormone . TRH in turn stimulates the release of TSH in the pituitary, which then signals to the thyroid gland.

This whole network is also referred to as the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and it adapts to metabolic changes and your bodys needs.

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What Are Typical Symptoms Of Hyper

Typical symptoms for hyperthyroidism is weight loss, fast heart rate, high irritability/nervousness, muscle weakness and tremors, infrequent menstrual periods, sleep problems, eye irritations and heat sensitivity.

Symptoms for hypothyroidism is the contrary of hyperthyroidism such as weight gain, slower heart rate, fatigue, more frequent and stronger menstrual periods, forgetfulness, dry skin and hair, hoarse voice and intolerance to cold. In addition, hypothyroidism is often accompanied by an enlargement of the thyroid gland known as goitre.

Calcitonin: The Thyroid Hormone For Calcium Regulation

Pin on Hypothyroid

Responsible for the metabolism of calcium and phosphorous, calcitonin is produced mostly in the C-cells or the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland.

Calcitonin is widely known to lower the levels of calcium in the blood. It does so by stopping osteoclast activity in the bone.

This then inhibits the release of calcium and phosphorous in the body.

It also works on the kidney by preventing the reabsorption of these two minerals in the kidney tubules, and instead excretes them into the urine.

Because of calcitonins action on the body, secretion of this hormone is usually brought about by increased levels of calcium in the body.

Likewise, calcitonin secretion is halted if there is a drop-in calcium levels in the body.

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In The Body What Is The Role Of Thyroxine

Thyroxine is one of the main hormones secreted from the thyroid follicular cells. Within the body, thyroxine affects the bodys metabolism and has an effect on protein synthesis. It is also important for human growth and development, as it regulates bone growth and aids in the maturation of neurons. This hormone also increases the catecholamine effect, the bodys sensitivity to adrenaline. There are health issues linked to low and high levels of this hormone in the body.

Thyroxine is also known as T4, as the molecular structure consists of thyronine molecule with four iodine molecules. Synthesis occurs in the thyroid gland. The hormone is released into the blood through the thyroid follicular cells. Approximately 80 percent of all T4 is produced in the follicular cells.

In the body, T4 is transported to cells via the blood. Only free or unbound hormones are passed into cells and considered active. Up to 99 percent of thyroxine is actually bound to proteins in the blood. An individuals concentration of free T4 in the blood is extremely important in medical investigation and diagnosis.

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Where Are Endocrine Glands Located In The Human Body

Hypothalamus – The hypothalamus links our endocrine and nervous systems together. The hypothalamus drives the endocrine system.

Pituitary gland – The pituitary gland receives signals from the hypothalamus. This gland has two lobes, the posterior and anterior lobes. The posterior lobe secretes hormones that are made by the hypothalamus. The anterior lobe produces its own hormones, several of which act on other endocrine glands.

Thyroid gland – The thyroid gland is critical to the healthy development and maturation of vertebrates and regulates metabolism.

Adrenal glands – The adrenal gland is made up of two glands: the cortex and medulla. These glands produce hormones in response to stress and regulate blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and the body’s salt and water balance.

Pancreas – The pancreas is responsible for producing glucagon and insulin. Both hormones help regulate the concentration of glucose in the blood.

Gonads – The male reproductive gonads, or testes, and female reproductive gonads, or ovaries, produce steroids that affect growth and development and also regulate reproductive cycles and behaviors. The major categories of gonadal steroids are androgens, estrogens, and progestins, all of which are found in both males and females but at different levels.

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Other Thyroid Gland Disorders

Other disorders of the thyroid gland include:

  • Nodules – lumps in the thyroid. Some are groups of uncontrollably overactive thyroid cells. These are called hot nodules and cause hyperthyroidism. Other nodules are cold. These are generally harmless, but about 20 per cent will be cancerous.
  • Cancer – thyroid cancer is uncommon and is readily treatable, especially if detected early.

What Does The Thyroid Do: Hormones And Body Processes

Endocrine System: Thyroid Gland

What does the thyroid do involves an extensive amount of work in the body. The hormones produced by the thyroid control how the body uses food for energy. These hormones also help to improve the functions of other organs in the body. Thyroid hormones will affect a persons metabolism and how fast or slow the liver, brain, heart and muscles in the body work. If a persons body works too slow or fast, this can have a big impact on how well or bad they feel. As an example, if a person has a thyroid that doesnt produce enough hormones, they may experience poor circulation, weight gain and chronic fatigue. If the thyroid produces too much hormones, they may experience anxiety, weight loss, nervous energy and excessive sweating.

This gland is controlled by the bodys pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain. This gland will monitor the amount of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream and tell the thyroid to make less or more in order to ensure the body is getting just the right amount. The thyroid needs iodine in order to make hormones. Iodine comes from mainly dairy products and seafood, or iodized salt.

People with an overactive thyroid have a gland that produces too much thyroid hormone. Symptoms of an overactive thyroid include trouble concentrating, nervousness and irritability, trouble sleeping, weight loss, fast heart rate and excessive sweating. Medication will also be prescribed in order to maintain healthy thyroid hormone levels.

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How Is Hypothyroidism Diagnosed

It can actually be difficult to diagnose hypothyroidism because the symptoms can be easily confused with other conditions. If you have any of the symptoms of hypothyroidism, talk to your healthcare provider. The main way to diagnose hypothyroidism is a blood test called the thyroid stimulating hormone test. Your healthcare provider may also order blood tests for conditions like Hashimotos disease. If the thyroid is enlarged, your provider may be able to feel it during a physical exam during an appointment.

Can Hypothyroidism Be Prevented

Hypothyroidism cannot be prevented. The best way to prevent developing a serious form of the condition or having the symptoms impact your life in a serious way is to watch for signs of hypothyroidism. If you experience any of the symptoms of hypothyroidism, the best thing to do is talk to your healthcare provider. Hypothyroidism is very manageable if you catch it early and begin treatment.

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Should I Exercise If I Have A Thyroid Disease

Regular exercise is an important part of a healthy lifestyle. You do not need to change your exercise routine if you have a thyroid disease. Exercise does not drain your bodys thyroid hormones and it shouldnt hurt you to exercise. It is important to talk to your healthcare provider before you start a new exercise routine to make sure that its a good fit for you.

What Is Thyroid Disease Symptoms Diagnosis And Treatment

Endocrine system hand

Author: Added on: Nov 19, 2021Category: Updated on: Nov 19, 2021

Hormones produced by your thyroid are crucial to a number of body systems. Thyroid disease happens when either too much or too little of these important hormones are produced by your thyroid. Multiple thyroid disorders exist, such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, etc.

Table of Content

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    How The Parathyroid Glands Work

    The parathyroid glands can usually be found on the thyroid glands posterior surface. Most people have four of them, although its not unheard of to have more .

    Image from Human Anatomy Atlas.

    Chief cells, the epithelial cells of the parathyroids, produce PTH , which plays an important role in regulating the bodys calcium levels.

    When levels of calcium in the blood are low, the parathyroids secrete PTH. Basically, if you want to boost calcium levels in the blood, PTH is the best hormone for the job. It can do this in multiple ways.

    PTHs cool calcium-related abilities include:

    • Stimulating bone cells called osteoclasts to release bone-degrading enzymes, thus releasing calcium from the bone
    • Signaling osteoblasts, which build up new bone tissue, to stop doing that for a bit, thus letting some calcium stay in the blood
    • Helping tubules in the kidneys reabsorb calcium during urine production
    • Kicking off calcitriol production.

    Animation screenshot from Physiology & Pathology.

    When blood calcium levels are sufficiently high, the release of PTH ceases.

    In addition, the thyroid secretes calcitonin in response to high blood calcium. Basically, calcitonin counteracts what PTH does. Calcitonin signals osteoclasts to stop breaking down bone tissue, tells the kidneys to ease up on calcium reabsorption, and slows down the absorption of calcium in the intestines.

    Mechanism Of Action And Physiologic Effects Of Thyroid Hormones

    Thyroid Hormone Receptors and Mechanism of Action

    Receptors for thyroid hormones are intracellular DNA-binding proteins that function as hormone-responsive transcription factors, very similar conceptually to the receptors for steroid hormones.

    Thyroid hormones enter cells through membrane transporter proteins. A number of plasma membrane transporters have been identified, some of which require ATP hydrolysis the relative importance of different carrier systems is not yet clear and may differ among tissues. Once inside the nucleus, the hormone binds its receptor, and the hormone-receptor complex interacts with specific sequences of DNA in the promoters of responsive genes. The effect of the hormone-receptor complex binding to DNA is to modulate gene expression, either by stimulating or inhibiting transcription of specific genes.

    For the purpose of illustration, consider one mechanism by which thyroid hormones increase the strength of contraction of the heart. Cardiac contractility depends, in part, on the relative ratio of different types of myosin proteins in cardiac muscle. Transcription of some myosin genes is stimulated by thyroid hormones, while transcription of others in inhibited. The net effect is to alter the ratio toward increased contractility.

    For additional details on mechanism of action and how these receptors interact with other transcription factors, examine the section Thyroid Hormone Receptors.

    Physiologic Effects of Thyroid Hormones

    Thyroid Disease States

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    How Do The Parathyroids Work

    Normally parathyroid hormone release is triggered when the level of calcium in the blood is low. When the calcium level rises and is back to normal, the release of parathyroid hormone from the parathyroids is suppressed. However, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin work together to control calcium levels in the blood. The blood calcium level is the main stimulus for the release of these hormones, as the release of these hormones is not controlled by the pituitary gland.

    When the calcium level is high in the bloodstream, the thyroid gland releases calcitonin. Calcitonin slows down the activity of the osteoclasts found in bone. This decreases blood calcium levels. When calcium levels decrease, this stimulates the parathyroid gland to release parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid hormone encourages the normal process of bone breakdown . This process of bone breakdown releases calcium into the bloodstream. These actions raise calcium levels and counteract the effects of calcitonin. By having two hormones with opposing actions, the level of calcium in the blood can be carefully regulated.

    Parathyroid hormone also acts on the kidneys. Here it slows down the amount of calcium and magnesium filtered from the blood into the urine. Parathyroid hormone also stimulates the kidneys to make calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D. Calcitriol helps to increase the amount of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus absorbed from your guts into the blood.

    What Causes Hypothyroidism In Pregnancy

    Thyroid Gland, Hormones and Thyroid Problems, Animation

    In most cases, women with hypothyroidism during pregnancy have Hashimotos disease. This autoimmune disease causes the bodys immune system to attack and damage the thyroid. When that happens, the thyroid cant produce and release high enough levels of thyroid hormones, impacting the entire body. Pregnant women with hypothyroidism may feel very tired, have a hard time dealing with cold temperatures and experience muscles cramps.

    Thyroid hormones are important to your babys development while in the womb. These hormones help develop the brain and nervous system. If you have hypothyroidism, its important to control your thyroid levels during pregnancy. If your baby doesnt get enough thyroid hormone during development, the brain may not develop correctly and there could be issues later. Untreated or insufficiently treated hypothyroidism during pregnancy may lead to complications like miscarriage or preterm labor.

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    Are There Treatments Available For Thyroid Problems

    Fortunately, yes. After Dr. Holdren or Dr. Foley take a blood sample, its analyzed at a lab and results are returned after about seven days. We check on how much thyroid hormone is present in your blood and your level of thyroid-stimulating hormone , which is produced by the pituitary gland and motivates your thyroid to produce the hormone.

    Medications exist for thyroid imbalance, but at Regenerative Health & Wellness, we emphasize holistic treatments. For example, sometimes hormone replacement therapy is prescribed for hypothyroidism. We offer innovative bioidentical hormone therapy treatment, which uses man-made, plant-based hormones that are identical to the estrogen and testosterone that our bodies produce.

    Its common for a sluggish thyroid to cause unwanted weight gain, and we offer safe, effective medical weight-loss solutions too. Its best to work with our doctors to lose weight, especially when dealing with a thyroid problem. Our own Dr. Foley counsels our patients seeking weight-loss solutions, and your customized weight-loss plan is designed to complement your overall treatment plan.

    Instead of drastic diets or trending fad programs, we give you solid advice on lifestyle solutions, medications that aid weight loss, and practical guidance on how to maintain a healthy diet no matter where you are at home, enjoying a party, or in a restaurant.

    Our goal is to get you to a healthy weight, give you the tools to keep the pounds off, and support your thyroid health.

    How Does Eating Diet And Nutrition Affect Hypothyroidism

    Your thyroid uses iodine to make thyroid hormones. However, if you have Hashimotos disease or other types of autoimmune thyroid disorders, you may be sensitive to iodines harmful side effects. Eating foods that have large amounts of iodinesuch as kelp, dulse, or other kinds of seaweedmay cause or worsen hypothyroidism. Taking iodine supplements can have the same effect.

    Talk with members of your health care team

    • about what foods to limit or avoid
    • if you take iodine supplements
    • about any cough syrups you take because they may contain iodine

    If you are pregnant, you need more iodine because the baby gets iodine from your diet. Talk with your doctor about how much iodine you need.

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    What Happens When You Have A Thyroid Disorder

    Typically, your thyroid is constantly producing just the right amount of hormones to keep your body running normally. However, sometimes outside forces such as disease, damage to the thyroid or medications can impact your thyroids function.

    When the thyroid isnt producing enough of its hormones, a condition called hypothyroidism or underactive thyroid, all of your bodys functions slow down. Symptoms of this include fatigue, feeling cold when others are comfortable or warm, a slow heart rate, dry skin, constipation, weight gain even though your diet and fitness regimen havent changed, and, in children, growing very slowly.

    In some cases, your thyroid can produce too much of its hormones, which is called hyperthyroidism or overactive thyroid. Symptoms of this condition include feeling nervous and irritable, having trouble concentrating, feeling too warm when others dont feel warm, a fast heart rate, diarrhea, trouble sleeping, and losing weight without trying.

    Sometimes, a lump or swelling can occur in a thyroid gland, which is called a nodule. Nodules can sometimes have no effect on how the gland works or sometimes it can lead to having too much thyroid hormone in your system. Nodules can be benign, or non-cancerous, but some can be cancerous.

    Should a serious health concern lead your doctor to recommend having your thyroid removed, you can live without it. If this is the case, you would have to take a thyroid hormone pill every day.


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