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What Are The Two Types Of Thyroid Disorders

Hyperthyroidism Diagnosis And Treatment

Hypothyroidism type 2

A blood test measures levels of thyroid hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone in your blood. The pituitary gland releases TSH to stimulate the thyroid to produce its hormones. High thyroxine and low TSH levels indicate that your thyroid gland is overactive.

Your doctor might also give you radioactive iodine by mouth or as an injection, and then measure how much of it your thyroid gland takes up. Your thyroid takes in iodine to produce its hormones. Taking in a lot of radioactive iodine is a sign that your thyroid is overactive. The low level of radioactivity resolves quickly and isnt dangerous for most people.

Treatments for hyperthyroidism destroy the thyroid gland or block it from producing its hormones.

  • Antithyroid drugs such as methimazole prevent the thyroid from producing its hormones.
  • A large dose of radioactive iodine damages the thyroid gland. You take it as a pill by mouth. As your thyroid gland takes in iodine, it also pulls in the radioactive iodine, which damages the gland.
  • Surgery can be performed to remove your thyroid gland.

If you have radioactive iodine treatment or surgery that destroys your thyroid gland, you will develop hypothyroidism and need to take thyroid hormone daily.

How Does Eating Diet And Nutrition Affect Hashimotos Disease

The thyroid uses iodine, a mineral in some foods, to make thyroid hormones. However, if you have Hashimotos disease or other types of autoimmune thyroid disorders, you may be sensitive to harmful side effects from iodine. Eating foods that have large amounts of iodinesuch as kelp, dulse, or other kinds of seaweed, and certain iodine-rich medicinesmay cause hypothyroidism or make it worse. Taking iodine supplements can have the same effect.

Talk with members of your health care team about

  • what foods and beverages to limit or avoid
  • whether you take iodine supplements
  • any cough syrups you take that may contain iodine

However, if you are pregnant, you need to take enough iodine because the baby gets iodine from your diet. Too much iodine can cause problems as well, such as a goiter in the baby. If you are pregnant, talk with your doctor about how much iodine you need.

Researchers are looking at other ways in which diet and supplementssuch as vitamin D and seleniummay affect Hashimotos disease.2 However, no specific guidance is currently available.3

Whats The Difference Between Hyperthyroidism And Hypothyroidism

Hyperthyroidism refers to an overactive thyroid and hypothyroidism refers to an underactive thyroid . These two conditions often have different signs and symptoms. But sometimes the symptoms can overlap. For example, enlargement of the thyroid, called a goiter, can happen in both types of thyroid disease. The causes and treatments of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are very different.


Common signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:

  • Hand tremor

  • Irritability

  • Weaker or less frequent periods

Graves disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is an autoimmune disease in which your immune system sees the thyroid as a foreign body and attacks it. The disease causes the thyroid to grow and release too much hormone. Some people with Graves disease also have bulging eyes due to swelling of the tissues around them.

Other causes of hyperthyroidism include:

  • Small masses within the thyroid

  • Thyroiditis an inflammation of the thyroid due to a virus

  • Postpartum thyroiditis

  • Taking too much thyroid hormone


  • Dry skin

  • Forgetfulness

Hypothyroidism occurs when your thyroid is either no longer working as it should or it is removed or destroyed for medical reasons . It is more common in women and with age. Hashimotos thyroiditis, another autoimmune disease, is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the U.S.

Other causes of hypothyroidism include:

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What Is The Thyroid

The thyroid gland is a small organ thats located in the front of the neck, wrapped around the windpipe . Its shaped like a butterfly, smaller in the middle with two wide wings that extend around the side of your throat. The thyroid is a gland. You have glands throughout your body, where they create and release substances that help your body do a specific thing. Your thyroid makes hormones that help control many vital functions of your body.

When your thyroid doesnt work properly, it can impact your entire body. If your body makes too much thyroid hormone, you can develop a condition called hyperthyroidism. If your body makes too little thyroid hormone, its called hypothyroidism. Both conditions are serious and need to be treated by your healthcare provider.

What Causes Thyroid Problems

15 Unknown Thyroid Symptoms in Women

All types of hyperthyroidism are due to an overproduction of thyroid hormones, but the condition can occur in several ways:

  • Graves’ disease: The production of too much thyroid hormone.
  • Toxic adenomas: Nodules develop in the thyroid gland and begin to secrete thyroid hormones, upsetting the body’s chemical balance some goiters may contain several of these nodules.
  • Subacute thyroiditis: Inflammation of the thyroid that causes the gland to “leak” excess hormones, resulting in temporary hyperthyroidism that generally lasts a few weeks but may persist for months.
  • Pituitary gland malfunctions or cancerous growths in the thyroid gland: Although rare, hyperthyroidism can also develop from these causes.

Hypothyroidism, by contrast, stems from an underproduction of thyroid hormones. Since your body’s energy production requires certain amounts of thyroid hormones, a drop in hormone production leads to lower energy levels. Causes of hypothyroidism include:

Untreated for long periods of time, hypothyroidism can bring on a myxedema coma, a rare but potentially fatal condition that requires immediate hormone treatment.

  • A pituitary disorder
  • A defective thyroid
  • Lack of the gland entirely

A hypothyroid infant is unusually inactive and quiet, has a poor appetite, and sleeps for excessively long periods of time.

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How Is Thyroiditis Treated

Treatment depends on the type of thyroiditis and the clinical presentation.

  • Thyrotoxicosis Beta blockers to decrease palpitations and decrease tremors may be helpful. As symptoms improve, the medication is tapered off since the thyrotoxic phase is temporary. Antithyroid medications are not used for the thyrotoxic phase of thyroiditis of any kind since the thyroid is not overactive.
  • Hypothyroidism Treatment is started with thyroid hormone replacement for hypothyroidism due to Hashimotos thyroiditis . In patients who are symptomatic with the hypothyroid phase of subacute, painless and postpartum thyroiditis, thyroid hormone therapy is also indicated. If the hypothyroidism in these latter disorders is mild and the patient has few, if any, symptoms, then no therapy may be necessary. If thyroid hormone therapy is begun in patients with subacute, painless and post-partum thyroiditis, the treatment should be continued for approximately 6-12 months and then tapered to see if it is required permanently.
  • Thyroidal pain The pain associated with subacute thyroiditis usually can be managed with mild antiinflammatory medications such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Occasionally, the pain can be severe and require steroid therapy with prednisone.

Are There Different Types Of Thyroid Removal Surgery

If your healthcare provider determines that your thyroid needs to be removed, there are a couple of ways that can be done. Your thyroid may need to be completely removed or just partially. This will depend on the severity of your condition. Also, if your thyroid is very big or has a lot of growths on it, that could prevent you from being eligible for some types of surgery.

The surgery to remove your thyroid is called a thyroidectomy. There are two main ways this surgery can be done:

  • With an incision on the front of your neck.
  • With an incision in your armpit.

The incision on the front of your neck is more of the traditional version of a thyroidectomy. It allows your surgeon to go straight in and remove the thyroid. In many cases, this might be your best option. You may need this approach if your thyroid is particularly big or has a lot of larger nodules.

Alternatively, there is a version of the thyroid removal surgery where your surgeon makes an incision in your armpit and then creates a tunnel to your thyroid. This tunnel is made with a special tool called an elevated retractor. It creates an opening that connects the incision in your armpit with your neck. The surgeon will use a robotic arm that will move through the tunnel to get to the thyroid. Once there, it can remove the thyroid back through the tunnel and out of the incision in your armpit.

  • Are not at a healthy body weight.
  • Have large thyroid nodules.
  • Have a condition like thyroiditis or Gravess disease.

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What Are The Common Symptoms

The doctor should be seen immediately as soon as the symptoms of thyroid are seen.

  • Feeling tired due to thyroid problem
  • Gas problem
  • Increased Heart beat
  • Sudden Weight loss or gain etc.

Thyroid problem is mostly seen in women. There are some natural remedies to get rid of thyroid problem. Thyroid problem can be reduced by adopting them.


People who are suffering from thyroid problems can take the help of natural remedies to deal with this problem.

What Foods Are Bad For The Thyroid

Types of Thyroid Diseases

Medical Author: Rohini Radhakrishnan, ENT, Head and Neck Surgeon Medical Editor: Pallavi Suyog Uttekar, MD

The thyroid gland is a shield-shaped gland located in your neck. It secretes the hormones T3 and T4 that control the metabolism of every cell in the body. A balanced diet rich in fruits, veggies, and complex carbs keeps the thyroid gland healthy.

Certain foods may interfere with the ability of the thyroid gland to process or produce thyroid hormones. These are called goitrogens.

Foods that are bad for your thyroid may include

What foods can I eat to support healthy thyroid function?

Foods that support healthy thyroid function may include

  • Protein: Grass-fed meats, free-range chicken, wild-caught seafood, and beans
  • Selenium: Brazil nuts, organic liver, cold-water fish, and garlic
  • Magnesium: Dark leafy greens, almonds, pecans, and flax seeds
  • Vitamin B12: Grass-fed meats, free-range chicken and eggs, and wild-caught seafood
  • Iodine: Wild-caught seafood, seaweed, and kelp
  • Iron: Grass-fed beef, organic beef liver, spinach, and sardines
  • Zinc: Grass-fed meats, free-range chicken, wild-caught seafood, and almonds
  • Vitamin B2: Grass-fed meats, organic organ meats, almonds, and green vegetables
  • Vitamin D: Sunshine, egg yolks, organic liver, and wild-caught fish
  • Omega-3 fatty acids: Wild-caught fish, walnuts, chia, and flax seeds
  • Vitamin C: Broccoli, brussels sprout, citrus fruits, and berries
  • Vitamin A: Free-range eggs, green vegetables, and organic liver

What is hypothyroidism?

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Other Causes Of Thyrotoxicosis

Several rare causes of thyrotoxicosis exist that deserve mention. Struma ovarii is ectopic thyroid tissue associated with dermoid tumors or ovarian teratomas that can secrete excessive amounts of thyroid hormone and produce thyrotoxicosis.

Iodide-induced thyrotoxicosis occurs in patients with excessive iodine intake . The antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone, which is rich in iodine and bears some structural similarity to T4, may cause thyrotoxicosis . Iodide-induced thyrotoxicosis also occurs in patients with areas of thyroid autonomy, such as a multinodular goiter or autonomous nodule.

Iodide-induced thyrotoxicosis appears to result from loss of the normal adaptation of the thyroid to iodide excess. It is treated with cessation of the excess iodine intake and with administration of antithyroid medication. Usually, after depletion of the excess iodine, thyroid functions return to preexposure levels.

Patients with a molar hydatidiform pregnancy or choriocarcinoma have extremely high levels of beta human chorionic gonadotropin , which can weakly activate the TSH receptor. At very high levels of -hCG, activation of the TSH receptors is sufficient to cause thyrotoxicosis.

Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma may also result in thyrotoxicosis. These lesions maintain the ability to make thyroid hormone, and in patients with bulky tumors, production may be high enough to cause thyrotoxicosis.

How Is Hyperthyroidism Treated

Your doctor’s choice of treatment will depend on your symptoms and the cause of your hyperthyroidism. Treatments include:

  • Medicine.
  • Antithyroid medicines block your thyroid from making new thyroid hormone. These drugs do not cause lasting damage to the thyroid.
  • Beta-blockers block the effects of thyroid hormone on your body. These medicines can be helpful in slowing your heart rate and treating other symptoms until one of the other forms of treatment can take effect. Beta-blockers do not reduce the amount of thyroid hormones that are made.
  • Radioiodine. This treatment kills the thyroid cells that make thyroid hormones. Often, this causes permanent hypothyroidism.
  • Surgery. Thyroid surgery removes most or all of the thyroid. This may cause permanent hypothyroidism.
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    Reduce Your Risk Of Thyroid Disease

    There is no way to prevent thyroid disease. However, some lifestyle choices can help you reduce the risk of this hormonal condition or delay its progression.Make sure that you are not deficient of iodine: This is one of the key elements of your thyroid hormone. If your diet is deficient of iodine, your body wont be able to produce sufficient levels of this hormone. Look for foods and supplements that fulfil the recommended daily allowance of iodine: 150 mcg/day.Quit Smoking: Cigarettes are loaded with a chemical thiocyanate, which can be potentially harmful for your thyroid gland, making you vulnerable to thyroid disorders.Reduce your exposure to toxins: There are various chemicals found in various products of daily use. They can damage your thyroid gland. For example, triclosan, in some antibacterial soaps and toothpastes, BPA, in food packages and the nonstick coating on your pans are potentially harmful for your thyroid gland.Limit your soy intakeIf you go overboard on soy, your thyroid gland wont be able to produce thyroid hormone sufficiently. Avoid soy powders, supplements, and milk. Experts suggest that you use it in fermented form and not as a primary source of protein.

    Incidence And Risk Factors: Who Is Affected By Thyroid Disorders

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    Hypothyroidism is much more common, with about 1 in 20 people in the United States diagnosed with the disease after the age of 12. Hyperthyroidism is a little easier to diagnose, but is less common, with an incidence rate of 1 in 100.

    Women are more likely to get thyroid disease, and both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism occur more often in women over 60. About 1 in 8 women are estimated to have thyroid disease at some point during their lifetimes. These thyroid disorders also tend to run in families.

    Thyroid problems can occur as a result of cancer treatments. You may also develop nodules directly on the thyroid gland, but these usually arent cancerous and dont necessarily cause any issues with thyroid function. A biopsy and ultrasound may be needed to rule out thyroid cancer, though this type of disease is rare.

    Sometimes pregnancy can cause thyroid levels to fluctuate. Hypothyroidism is more common. Thyroid levels may not normalize for about a year after delivery. Hypothyroidism is also a risk factor for women after menopause.

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    Is Your Bodys Metabolism Too Slow Or Too Fast Your Thyroid Could Be The Problem

    The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland at the base of the neck, above the collarbones. The thyroid makes hormones that regulate your bodys metabolismthe way your body uses energy. If your thyroid doesn’t work right, critical body functions, such as heart rate and energy, can be affected. We talked to endocrinologist Javaid Wani, MD, of Grand Strand Medical Center in Myrtle Beach to find out what you need to know about thyroid disorders.

    Thyroid hormones The thyroid produces two main hormonesT4 and T3 . These hormones travel through your bloodstream and impact the function of almost every cell, tissue and organ in your body. Thyroid-stimulating hormone , which is made in the pituitary gland, controls the release of thyroid hormones. When everything is working normally, the pituitary gland releases more TSH when thyroid hormone levels are low, and less TSH when thyroid hormone levels are high. But sometimes things can go wrong, causing the release of too little or too much thyroid hormones.

    According to the American Thyroid Association, an estimated 20 million Americans have some form of thyroid disease. If left untreated, thyroid disorders can cause serious problems including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and infertility.

    Types of thyroid disordersHypothyroidism is a condition in which your thyroid gland doesnt produce any or enough thyroid hormones needed by your body to function normally, says Dr. Wani. Your metabolism slows as a result.

    • Weight gain

    What Are Thyroid Problems

    Through the hormones it produces, the thyroid gland influences almost all of the metabolic processes in your body. Thyroid disorders can range from a small, harmless goiter that needs no treatment to life-threatening cancer. The most common thyroid problems involve abnormal production of thyroid hormones. Too much thyroid hormone results in a condition known as hyperthyroidism. Insufficient hormone production leads to hypothyroidism.Although the effects can be unpleasant or uncomfortable, most thyroid problems can be managed well if properly diagnosed and treated.

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    What Should You Do If You Think You Have Signs And Symptoms Of A Thyroid Disorder Which Type Of Doctors Treat Thyroid Problems

    • Thyroid disease is a broad spectrum of disorders that may or may not lead to enlargement of the thyroid gland itself or the presence of lumps or nodules.
    • Signs and symptoms of thyroid disease are apparent when the gland is over- or under-producing thyroid hormone.
    • It is important to remember that none of these symptoms described in this article is specific for thyroid disease.
    • A number of different conditions and normal states may cause all of them.
    • Your doctor or endocrinologist can order laboratory tests to evaluate the function of your thyroid gland if you have troubling symptoms.

    Treatment Of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy

    Can homeopathy permanently cure thyroid disorders? – Dr. Suresh G

    A patient may need treatment for a thyroid condition during pregnancy. Maternal-fetal medicine specialists affiliated with Memorial Hermann will work with the patients obstetrician to prescribe safe and efficacious medications for the patients particular thyroid disease. In some cases, the patient may need to see an endocrinologist . Affiliated genetic counselors are also available to review medications and their effects in pregnancy.

    Before Labor & Delivery Resources

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