Where Is An Ultrasound Done
Generally, an ultrasound is done in a hospital or in a private radiology practice. Trained sonographers and specialist radiologists work in these facilities.
As ultrasound equipment is portable and inexpensive to operate, it can be carried out in a variety of places and by a range of health professionals. For example, your obstetrician may have a small ultrasound system to examine you in your first part of pregnancy, or your rheumatologist may have a small ultrasound system to guide injections. Doctors in hospital accident and emergency departments also sometimes use ultrasound.
When ultrasound examinations are done outside imaging practices or hospitals, patients or their carers should ensure they are being examined and results interpreted correctly by asking if the examiner is specialised in ultrasound examinations.
Uses For A Thyroid Ultrasound
A thyroid ultrasound may be ordered if a thyroid function test is abnormal or if you doctor feels a growth on your thyroid while examining your neck. An ultrasound can also check an underactive or overactive thyroid gland.
You may receive a thyroid ultrasound as part of an overall physical exam. Ultrasounds can provide high-resolution images of your organs that can help your doctor better understand your general health. Your doctor may also order an ultrasound if they notice any abnormal swelling, pain, or infections so that they can uncover any underlying conditions that might be causing these symptoms.
Ultrasounds may also be used if your doctor needs to take a biopsy of your thyroid or surrounding tissues to test for any existing conditions.
How Do I Prepare For A Nuclear Medicine Thyroid Scan
Concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in the thyroid gland is affected by several factors. The most important of all is iodine, which will prevent the radiopharmaceutical entering the gland, resulting in poor scan images. If you have had a computed tomography scan requiring intravenous iodine contrast medium, please schedule your thyroid scan at least 68 weeks after the CT scan. High iodine-containing food, health supplements and medications should also be avoided before the scan. If you are unsure whether you are taking anything that may affect the scan, please talk to your doctor or the nuclear medicine facility.
It is important that you let staff at the hospital or nuclear medicine facility where you are having the scan done know if you are pregnant or if you are breast-feeding.
This study may not be suitable for pregnant women because of the radiation dose to the growing foetus. Please discuss this with your doctor.
Women who are breast-feeding and people who are the primary or sole carer for small children may need to make special preparations after the test to stop breast-feeding for a short time and avoid close contact with young children. This is due to the small amount of radioactivity your body may release for a short time after the test. Your doctor or the nuclear medicine facility will instruct you on how to manage breast-feeding before and after the scan .
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After An Ultrasound Scan
In most cases, there are no after-effects and you can go home soon after the scan is finished.
If a sedative wasn’t used, you can drive, eat, drink and return to your other normal activities straightaway.
If you had an endoscopic ultrasound and were given a sedative to help you relax, you’ll usually;be advised;to stay in hospital for a few hours until the medication starts to wear off.
You’ll need to arrange for someone to pick you up from the hospital and stay with you for the next 24 hours.
You shouldn’t drive, drink alcohol or operate machinery during this time.
You may be told the results of your scan soon after it’s been carried out, but in most cases the images will need to be analysed and a report will be sent to the doctor who referred you for the scan.
They’ll discuss the results with you a few days later or at your next appointment, if one’s been arranged.
What About Other Treatments That I Hear About
When you have cancer you might hear about other ways to treat the cancer or treat your symptoms. These may not always be standard medical treatments. These treatments may be vitamins, herbs, special diets, and other things. You may wonder about these treatments.
Some of these are known to help, but many have not been tested. Some have been shown not to help. A few have even been found to be harmful. Talk to your doctor about anything youre thinking about using, whether its a vitamin, a diet, or anything else.
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Why Would My Doctor Refer Me To Have This Procedure
The most common reason for people to have thyroid FNA is to find out the cause of a thyroid lump . The nodule might be something that you or your doctor have noticed because:
- You can see or feel a lump in the front of the neck in the area of the thyroid.
- You have general swelling in the thyroid area and your doctor sent you to have an ultrasound examination that showed one or more nodules in the gland.
- You had a thyroid problem detected while having a scanning test for other reasons.
The most common tests that show thyroid nodules are:
- ultrasound of the neck;
- computed tomography scanning that includes the neck or PET CT scanning of the whole body;
- nuclear medicine scanning of the thyroid.
In all of these cases, thyroid FNA is carried out to discover the cause for one or more nodules in the gland. Thyroid nodules are extremely common, being found on ultrasound in up to approximately 50% of adults. Palpable nodules are much less common, being present in approximately 5% of women and 1% of men.
Nodules are generally nothing to worry about and are more common in people born and raised in areas a long way from the coast, where the soil tends to be deficient in iodine. People living in these areas may have an iodine deficient diet. Iodine deficiency can make the thyroid gland get bigger . In some cases, this enlargement is a result of growth of one or more nodules in the gland.
What Happens During A Thyroid Scan
You will be given an injection of a radiopharmaceutical called sodium pertechnetate. This will concentrate in the thyroid gland. After the injection, you will have a 15 to 20-minute wait before having the scan to allow the radiopharmaceutical to be taken up by the thyroid gland.
When you have the thyroid scan, you will be lying down on a bed and the camera will be positioned very close over your head, but will not touch you. Several images are taken, lasting about 5 minutes each, and the camera may move slightly during this time. It is important you lie very still and try not to swallow during this time, as movement will blur the pictures. Please speak to the staff before or during your scan if you find this difficult. A nuclear medicine specialist may wish to examine your neck, to feel for any thyroid nodules or gland enlargement.
How Can You Prepare For Your Thyroid Fna
Most medications can be continued. However, anticoagulants, also called blood thinners, often need to be stopped temporarily in anticipation of your thyroid biopsy. These medications can increase the risk of bleeding. It is common to receive specific instructions regarding when to stop taking medications from your doctors office prior to the procedure. If you have any questions about taking your medications prior to the thyroid biopsy, be sure to talk to your doctor.
Generally, you will not be required to be fasting on the day of your appointment. During the thyroid biopsy, ultrasound gel will be applied to the neck to obtain ultrasound images. This gel is water soluble and non-toxic, but may get on clothing or jewelry. You may wish to wear comfortable clothing and take off any jewelry from around the neck for the procedure.
How Do I Prepare For An Ultrasound
This will depend on the type of ultrasound that is requested. Listed below are some of the common examinations, with the preparation generally required. This may vary slightly between ultrasound providers, so it is recommended that you contact the facility where you will be having the ultrasound to confirm preparation details.
All ultrasound examinations:
Read any instructions given to you by your doctor, imaging practice or hospital where you will be having the ultrasound.
Wear clothing that will provide easy access to the area that is being imaged.
Bring any previous radiology examinations you have had with you , so that they can be used for comparison and assessment.
IMPORTANT: If you have diabetes or you are on any medications prescribed by your doctor, or any other medication you think might affect the examination , contact the imaging practice or hospital for any special preparation instructions.
If a baby, infant or child is having an ultrasound, special instructions apply. Again, contact the imaging practice or hospital to ensure you receive the instructions appropriate to your childs age. This will ensure the best test is carried out at minimum discomfort to your child.
Specific ultrasound examinations:
Abdomen ultrasound: You will usually need to fast for 8;hours before the examination. This ensures there is no food or fluid covering the area that is to be examined. It also ensures the gall bladder is expanded to provide a clearer image.
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What Is The Thyroid Gland
The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland that is normally located in the lower front of the neck. The thyroids job is to make thyroid hormones, which are secreted into the blood and then carried to every tissue in the body. Thyroid hormones help the body use energy, stay warm and keep the brain, heart, muscles, and other organs working as they should.
What Are The Benefits Of A Thyroid Fna
A FNA is a low-risk procedure that can be carried out on an otherwise healthy person in a short time as a day procedure. You can return to your normal activities within an hour of the procedure being carried out in most cases, provided these activities are not strenuous. In most cases, the FNA will tell your doctor whether or not the nodule is cancerous, but sometimes two FNA procedures are needed to finally decide this.
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What Is An Ultrasound
Ultrasound is the term used for high-frequency soundwaves. Ultrasound examinations use these sound waves to produce a picture or image onto a screen showing the inside of your body.
An ultrasound is carried out by a trained health professional using a smooth, hand-held device called a transducer that they move across the body with a sliding and rotating action. The transducer transmits the high-frequency sound waves into your body. Different sound waves are reflected from different soft tissue, structures or parts in the body in different ways. These sound waves are converted to electrical impulses that ;produce a moving image displayed on a screen.
An ultrasound has many advantages. It is painless and does not involve radiation, which means it is very safe. There are no injections unless your doctor has specifically requested one. The high-frequency sound waves ensure images show very high detail, capable of looking at the very tiniest parts of the body. Ultrasound can be carried out while there is movement, so it is excellent for the imaging of babies and children.
A health professional will be there with you, and you have the opportunity to communicate any concerns you have.
Current Status Of Us Elastography And Ce
Several studies have been conducted to evaluate the role of ultrasound using elastography and contrast agent in the characterisation of thyroid nodules.
A study was conducted by FS Ferrari et al. in 2008, to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid nodule, using both elastography and CE-US. Elastography yielded a sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 78%, positive predictive value of 71%, negative predictive value of 91% and diagnostic accuracy of 82%; and CE-US yielded a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 71%, PPV of 69%, NPV 100% and DA of 83%.
Another study was done by Y Hong et al. in 2009 to evaluate the diagnostic utility of real-time ultrasound elastography in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules. According to this study, elastography yielded a sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 90%, PPV of 81% and NPV 93%.
A recent study published by Moon et al. in 2012 evaluated the diagnostic performance of gray-scale US and elastography in differentiating solid thyroid nodules. According to the study, the sensitivity and NPV for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules on gray scale US are 91% and 94.7% respectively, and on US elastography are 65.4% and 79.1% respectively. They concluded that elastography alone or in combination with gray scale US is not a useful tool in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules.
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What Happens During An Ultrasound
Before you have the ultrasound, the health professional carrying out the examination will ask you questions about why you have come for the ultrasound. They will then explain the procedure you are having in detail and answer any questions you have before they start the examination.
You are normally asked to lie down on a bed and the area to be examined is exposed while the rest of the body is covered. Clear gel is applied to the skin, so that the sound waves can pass easily into the area being examined. The sonographer will place the transducer onto this area using gentle pressure. The transducer is moved across the area with a sliding and rotating action to allow the image to project onto the screen.
The sonographer takes still photographs from the moving images on the screen.During the examination, you might be asked to do some simple movements to improve the quality of the imaging. For example:
- Take a bigger breath to assist seeing organs hidden by the rib cage during an abdominal examination.
- During an obstetric examination, you may be asked to roll around to encourage the foetus to roll into a better position for imaging.
- In musculoskeletal ultrasound, you may be asked to do arm or leg movements to try and determine where your pain might be coming from.
If any of these movements cause you concern or discomfort, you should let the sonographer know immediately.
What Will Happen After Treatment
Most people do very well after treatment, but you may need follow-up care for the rest of your life. This is because most thyroid cancers grow slowly and can come back even 10 to 20 years after treatment. Your cancer care team will tell you what tests you need and how often they should be done.
Be sure to go to all of these follow-up visits. You will have exams, blood tests, and maybe other tests to see if the cancer has come back. At first, your visits may be every 3 to 6 months. Then, the longer youre cancer-free, the less often the visits are needed.;
Sometimes treatments may not cure your cancer. You many need to keep getting treatment and care. From time to time tests will be done to see how your treatment is working.;
Having cancer and dealing with treatment can be hard, but it can also be a time to look at your life in new ways. Call us at 1-800-227-2345 or talk to your cancer care team to find out what you can do to feel better.
You cant change the fact that you have cancer. What you can change is how you live the rest of your life.
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Indications Of Thyroid Ultrasound
Indications for thyroid USG, following the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and Associazione Medici Endocrinologi recommendations, are as follows:
To confirm presence of a thyroid nodule when physical examination is equivocal.
To characterize a thyroid nodule, i.e. to measure the dimensions accurately and to identify internal structure and vascularization.
To differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid masses, based on their sonographic appearance.
To differentiate between thyroid nodules and other cervical masses like lymphadenopathy, thyroglossal cyst and cystic hygroma.
To evaluate diffuse changes in thyroid parenchyma.
To detect post-operative residual or recurrent tumor in thyroid bed or metastases to neck lymph nodes.
To screen high risk patients for thyroid malignancy like patients with history of familial thyroid cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasia type II and irradiated neck in childhood.
To guide diagnostic and therapeutic interventional procedures.
What Are The Risks Of A Thyroid Fna
FNA is a very safe procedure and is considered very low risk for most people, because the needle that is used is so small.
There are two reasonably common risks and several rare risks that you should know about. The most common risk is an uncertain diagnosis, even after the tissue sample is looked at thoroughly by the pathologist. This happens up to 20% of the time.
The second most common risk is bleeding at the site of the FNA. This happens to approximately 1 in 10 people, and generally produces some local pain, tenderness and a lump. Simple pain medication available at the chemist is generally sufficient to help the pain and it settles with the swelling over a few days. It is best to avoid aspirin for pain relief unless you are taking this daily for other reasons. Aspirin makes it harder for blood to clot, so paracetamol is better if you need to take something for pain after the thyroid FNA.
Major haemorrhage, enough to cause compression of your airway and problems breathing, is very rare . You need to go to a hospital emergency department immediately if this happens, and sometimes surgery is needed to stop the bleeding, but this too is very rare.
Rarer complications after thyroid FNA include:
If any of these things happen to you, you should see your doctor.
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