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Can Thyroglossal Cyst Affect Thyroid Function

Other Thyroid Blood Tests


There are a few other blood tests that may be ordered to investigate suspected thyroid disease. Calcitonin is a hormone made by the C cells of the thyroid and is released when levels of blood calcium are high. Calcitonin levels may be ordered in the investigation of people with thyroid nodules or suspected medullary thyroid cancer. Blood levels of calcitonin may be elevated in medullary thyroid cancer, and may be used in monitoring following treatment for medullary thyroid cancer. In addition, another blood test called carcinoembryonic antigen, or CEA, is also used in addition to calcitonin for monitoring and follow up after treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. CEA is also used for monitoring following treatment of other types of tumours, such as colorectal cancers.

How Is The Procedure Performed

The Thyroglossal Duct and Cyst Removal procedure may be performed under general anesthesia.

  • An incision is made on the skin of the neck over the area of the mass
  • After cutting through the underlying tissue layers, the cyst, the complete tract of the cyst up until the tongue tissue, and a part of a bone called the hyoid is removed
  • A small tube is kept in place temporarily to drain any fluid that may collect after surgery
  • The incision is closed in layers

Are There Any Complications Associated With This Cyst

Most cysts are harmless and wont cause any long-term complications. Your doctor may still recommend removing a harmless cyst if its causing you to feel self-conscious about the appearance of your neck.

Cysts may grow back even after theyve been fully removed, but this happens in less than 3 percent of all cases. Cyst surgery can also leave a visible scar on your neck.

If a cyst grows or become inflamed because of an infection, you may not be able to breathe or swallow properly, which can be potentially harmful. Also, if a cyst gets infected, it may need to be removed. This usually happens after the infection has been treated.

In rare cases, these cysts can become cancerous and may need to be removed immediately to stop the cancerous cells from spreading. This happens in less than 1 percent of all cases of thyroglossal duct cysts.

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What Is The Cost Of Performing The Thyroglossal Duct & Cyst Removal Surgical Procedure

The cost of Thyroglossal Duct & Cyst Removal procedure depends on a variety of factors, such as the type of your health insurance, annual deductibles, co-pay requirements, out-of-network and in-network of your healthcare providers and healthcare facilities.

In many cases, an estimate may be provided before the procedure. The final amount depends upon the findings during the surgery/procedure and post-operative care that is necessary.

What Causes A Thyroglossal Duct Cyst

Thyroglossal duct cyst

A thyroglossal duct cyst is a congenital defect. When the thyroid gland forms during embryonic development, it begins at the base of the tongue and moves down the neck through a canal called the thyroglossal duct. This duct normally disappears once the thyroid reaches its final position in the neck. Sometimes, portions of the duct remain leaving cavities or pockets called cysts. These cysts can fill with fluid or mucus, and may enlarge if they become infected. Very enlarged cysts can cause difficulty swallowing or obstruct breathing passages.

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Thyroglossal Duct Cyst Cancer Characteristics

Twenty-three of the 26 thyroglossal duct cyst cancers showed a papillary histotype, whereas the other 3 cases were follicular. Tumor size in the thyroglossal duct cyst was 1.0 centimeter in 7 of 26 patients and > 1.0 centimeter in 16 of 26 cases . Accurate size data were not available in the other 3 cases. Within the thyroglossal duct cyst, the cancer was multifocal in 1 case , and adjacent soft tissue invasion was present in 8 cases .

What Is The Consent Process Before The Procedure

A physician will request your consent for Thyroglossal Duct & Cyst Removal procedure using an Informed Consent Form.

Consent for the Procedure: A âconsentâ is your approval to undergo a procedure. A consent form is signed after the risks and benefits of the procedure, and alternative treatment options, are discussed. This process is called informed consent.

You must sign the forms only after you are totally satisfied by the answers to your questions. In case of minors and individuals unable to personally give their consent, the individualâs legal guardian or next of kin, shall give their consent for the procedure.

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What To Do If Aspiration Of Thyroid Cyst Does Not Work

If aspiration of the cyst does not work then your Doctor may recommend an ablative procedure with something like ethanol. An ablation is used to try and destroy the cells which are producing the fluid which fills up your cyst .

If any complication is present, such as infection, cancer, or growth, he may need to intervene. Treatment would depend upon the complication. It may be just draining out the cyst or even total excision.

This is a yellow pasty substance that sometimes drains from such cysts. Schwann cells provide covering to the nerves fibers. Abnormal growth of these cells form clusters leading to schwannomas. The nerves of the head and neck region are prone to the formation of schwannomas.

This happens in less than 1 percent of all cases of thyroglossal duct cysts. Thyroglossal duct cysts are usually harmless. Surgical cyst removal has a good outlook: over 95 percent of cysts are fully cured after surgery. The chance of a cyst returning is small.

If aspiration of the cyst does not work then your Doctor may recommend an ablative procedure with something like ethanol. An ablation is used to try and destroy the cells which are producing the fluid which fills up your cyst .

Postsurgical Treatment And Follow

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Postoperatively, most patients received a therapeutic 131I dose . Among the 3 patients that were not treated with 131I, 2 had a microcarcinoma in the thyroglossal duct cyst, no cancer in the gland, and no lymph node involvement and received only a diagnostic 131I-WBS . The other one , who had received a low nonconventional 131I dose in another center, was not treated with additional 131I therapy because he was disease-free when he came under our observation. Mild positivity was present in the thyroid bed in most cases , and very mild positivity was present above that area in 6 of 23 patients. All patients were then treated with suppressive l-T4 therapy.

At the last follow-up visit , 6 of the 26 patients had persistent papillary cancer disease recurrent malignant disease was limited to the cervical lymph nodes in patients 12, 17, 18, and 21 . In these patients, the affected compartments had not been dissected at the first surgery.

In the other 2 patients , the recurrent site was not identified. In both, the only marker of persistent disease was a repeatedly elevated serum Tg after l-T4 withdrawal.

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Mohamad A Bitar123* Mohammad Kamal4 And Charbel Rameh15

  • 1Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, American University of Beirut, Lebanon 2Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, American University of Beirut Faculty of Medicine & Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon 3The Childrens Hospital at Westmead, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Australia 4American University of Beirut School of Medicine & Medical Center, Lebanon 5Currently in Private Practice, Beirut, Lebanon

*Address for Correspondence:Citation:

When Do You Need A Second Opinion Prior To The Procedure

  • It is normal for a patient to feel uncomfortable and confused by the information regarding the Thyroglossal Duct and Cyst Removal procedure and on what needs to be done
  • If the patient needs further reassurance or a second opinion, a physician will almost always assist and also recommend another physician, if required
  • They can also choose to approach another physician independently. Besides, if the procedure has many alternatives, the patient may take a second opinion to understand and choose the best one

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Thyroglossal Duct Cyst Prognosis

Following the Sistrunk procedure, the prognosis is usually excellent. About 10% of thyroglossal duct cysts recur after Sistrunk. There is a much higher recurrence rate with simple excision without excising the middle third of the hyoid bone. 1% of thyroglossal duct cysts are malignant, which is usually diagnosed after surgical removal.


Malignant Involvement Of The Thyroid Gland

Evaluation of neck tumors

The thyroid gland was pathologically examined in all of the patients. A concomitant papillary cancer was found in 16 of 26 cases . The mean tumor size in the thyroid was 7.3 ± 5.1 millimeters, and most tumors were microcarcinomas. Multifocality was present in 8 of 16 patients , and adjacent soft tissue invasion was present in 1 of 16 cases .

Compared with concomitant cancers in the thyroglossal duct cyst, thyroid gland cancers were more frequently microcarcinomas and multifocal . Cancer extension to the adjacent soft tissue was also more frequent in thyroglossal duct cyst cancers relative to thyroid gland cancers .

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How Is This Cyst Diagnosed

Your doctor may be able to tell if you have a thyroglossal duct cyst simply by examining a lump on your neck.

If your doctor suspects that you have a cyst, they may recommend one or more blood or imaging tests to look for the cyst in your throat and confirm the diagnosis. Blood tests can measure the amount of thyroid-stimulating hormone in your blood, which indicates how well your thyroid is working.

Some imaging tests that may be used include:

  • Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to generate real-time images of the cyst. Your doctor or an ultrasound technician covers your throat in a cool gel and uses a tool called a transducer to look at the cyst on a computer screen.
  • CT scan: This test uses X-rays to create a 3-D image of the tissues in your throat. Your doctor or a technician will ask you to lie flat on a table. The table is then inserted into a donut-shaped scanner that takes images from several directions.
  • MRI: This test uses radio waves and a magnetic field to generate images of the tissues in your throat. Like a CT scan, youll lie flat on a table and remain still. The table will be inserted inside a large, tube-shaped machine for a few minutes while images from the machine are sent to a computer for viewing.

Your doctor may also perform fine needle aspiration. In this test, your doctor inserts a needle into the cyst to extract cells that they can examine to confirm a diagnosis.

How Are Thyroglossal Duct Cysts Removed

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  • Heat clean water to a warm or hot temperature, not boiling.
  • Wait for the water to cool to a tolerable, but hot, temperature for skin contact.
  • Dampen a clean cloth with the water and apply to the cyst for 20 to 30 minutes.
  • Repeat a few times each day.
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    How Is A Thyroglossal Duct Cyst Treated In A Child

    Treatment will depend on your childs symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.

    Your childs healthcare provider will regularly check your childs cyst. Treatment may include:

    • Antibiotic medicine
    • Cutting into and draining the cyst, if antibiotic medicine doesnt get rid of the infection
    • Cutting out the cyst and some nearby tissue
    • Injecting a substance to remove the cyst, if a child cant have surgery

    What Type Of Surgeon Removes Thyroglossal Duct Cyst

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    Thyroglossal duct surgery This type of surgery is called the Sistrunk procedure. To perform the Sistrunk procedure, your doctor or surgeon will: Give you general anesthesia so that you can stay asleep during the whole surgery. Make a small cut on the front of the neck to open the skin and muscles above the cyst.

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    What Is A Thyroglossal Duct Cyst In Children

    A thyroglossal duct cyst is a pocket in the front part of neck that is filled with fluid. A child is born with this cyst. It is formed from leftover tissue from the development of the thyroid gland when an embryo was forming. The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck. It is part of the hormone-producing glands called the endocrine system.

    Although the cyst is present at birth, it is usually not found until a child is at least age 2. Often a healthcare provider finds a thyroglossal cyst when a child gets an upper respiratory infection.

    When Should You Expect Results From The Pathologist Regarding Tissue Taken Out During The Procedure

    • The tissue removed is processed in the laboratory under a pathologist’s supervision
    • Slide are prepared once the tissue is processed and this is examined by a pathologist and a pathology report issued
    • Depending on the complexity of the case, issue of the report may take anywhere between 72 hours to a week’s time

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    What Happens After Sistrunk Procedure

    4.8/5Sistrunk proceduresurgeryafter surgeryread more on it

    The operation takes about one hour. shorter. Part of the hyoid bone and tissue in the tongue may be removed with the cyst. After the operation, once you are fully awake, you will be moved to a bed in the hospital.

    should a Thyroglossal cyst be removed? This usually happens after the infection has been treated. In rare cases, these cysts can become cancerous and may need to be removed immediately to stop the cancerous cells from spreading. This happens in less than 1 percent of all cases of thyroglossal duct cysts.

    In this regard, what is a Sistrunk procedure?

    Removal of a thyroglossal duct cyst or sinus tract, also known as the Sistrunk procedure after Dr. Sistrunk, involves a neck incision with dissection up to a small bone in the upper neck called the hyoid bone.

    Can the hyoid bone be removed?

    Although a central portion of the hyoid bone is frequently removed along with the cyst, the tissue above the hyoid is often not excised fully. Instead, it is common practice to simply follow the tract above the hyoid until it breaks off or disappears.

    What Is Thyroglossal Cyst


    4.4/5thyroglossal cystcystthyroglossalThyroglossal cystsThyroglossal cysts

    Thereof, is Thyroglossal cyst dangerous?

    If a cyst grows or become inflamed because of an infection, you may not be able to breathe or swallow properly, which can be potentially harmful. Also, if a cyst gets infected, it may need to be removed. This usually happens after the infection has been treated.

    Subsequently, question is, can a Thyroglossal duct cyst go away on its own? This duct usually goes away. If it does not go away, the duct can create a cyst. The cyst will appear as a small round lump in a child’s upper neck. The cyst can get infected, causing redness and tenderness.

    Consequently, does Thyroglossal cyst go away?

    Thyroglossal cysts are most often found and treated in children. But they may sometimes go undetected or untreated until adulthood.

    How do you treat a Thyroglossal cyst?

    The treatment for a thyroglossal duct cyst is surgical removal. There is no known medical therapy with the exception of infected thyroglossal duct cysts, which require immediate antibiotic treatment. The infection should be resolved before surgery is performed.

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    Thyroglossal Duct Cyst Cancer

    Less than 1% of thyroglossal duct cysts develop into a carcinoma 13). Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignancy found followed by squamous cell carcinoma 14). Thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma typically presents with an asymptomatic midline neck mass. 73.3% of these types of carcinomas were diagnosed as an incidental finding on final pathologic analysis. Patients diagnosed with thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma tend to be adults and have an older average age than the typical thyroglossal duct cyst patient. Treatment of thyroglossal duct cyst papillary carcinoma involves a Sistrunk procedure followed by evaluation of lateral neck lymph nodes and thyroid. Total thyroidectomy, lateral neck dissection and/or radioactive iodine may be indicated depending on the extent of disease. Overall prognosis is excellent, with a survival rate of 99.4% and a recurrence rate of 4.3%.

    What Is Thyroglossal Duct Cyst

    Thyroglossal duct cyst or thyroglossal cyst, is a rare hereditary form of a benign congenital neck mass. Thyroglossal cyst is the most common congenital midline neck mass in children 1), accounting for > 7075% of these masses 2). Thyroglossal duct cysts are caused by abnormal development and migration of the cells forming the thyroid gland between the 4th and 8th week of fetal development 3). The thyroglossal duct is the area in which the cells that form the thyroid gland migrate during fetal development. It typically closes off and dissolves before birth, but may remain open in some individuals. When the thyroglossal duct fails to dissolve completely, a cyst may form. It is not clear why occurs in some individuals. The cause of this abnormal development is largely not known and usually sporadic however, in rare circumstances thyroglossal cysts can be inherited. Familial thyroglossal cyst are commonly inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern with rare reports of autosomal recessive inheritance 4).

    Thyroglossal duct cysts can form anywhere along the thyroids route of migration from the tongue base to the inferior neck 5). Thyroglossal duct cysts often present as midline neck cysts closely associated with the hyoid bone 6).

    The surgical procedure to excise a thyroglossal duct cyst is called the Sistrunk procedure and is performed under general anesthesia. The procedure is usually a day surgery, meaning that your child will be able to go home the same day as the procedure.

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    When Do You Need To Call Your Physician

    Do contact your physician if you notice any of the following symptoms:

    • Pain that worsens and swelling around the surgical wound
    • Bleeding or fluid drainage within the surgical wound
    • The occurrence of any symptom that causes uneasiness such as nausea or vomiting
    • If the child has difficulty making vocal sounds when speaking
    • If the child has difficulty breathing
    • Signs of an infection
    • Complications associated with prescription medications used in treatment


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