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Can A Blood Test Detect Thyroid Cancer

Radioactive Iodine Uptake Test

Blood Tests for Thyroid Cancer Diagnosis ?

A radioactive iodine uptake test, also called a thyroid uptake test, can help check thyroid function and find the cause of hyperthyroidism. The thyroid takes up iodine from the blood to make thyroid hormones, which is why this is called an uptake test. Your health care professional may ask you to avoid foods high in iodine, such as kelp, or medicines containing iodine for a week before the test.

For this test, you will swallow a small amount of radioactive iodine in liquid or capsule form. During the test, you will sit in a chair while a technician places a device called a gamma probe in front of your neck, near your thyroid gland. The probe measures how much radioactive iodine your thyroid takes up from your blood. Measurements are often taken 4 to 6 hours after you swallow the radioactive iodine and again at 24 hours. The test takes only a few minutes.

If your thyroid collects a large amount of radioactive iodine, you may have Graves disease, or one or more nodules that make too much thyroid hormone. You may have this test at the same time as a thyroid scan.

Even though the test uses a small amount of radiation and is thought to be safe, you should not have this test if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

What Are Thyroid Hormones

The thyroid gland produces hormones that are essential for normal body metabolism. Blood testing is now commonly available to determine the adequacy of the levels of thyroid hormones. These blood tests can define whether the thyroid gland’s hormone production is normal, overactive, or underactive.

The thyroid gland is located in the lower part of the neck, below the Adam’s apple.The gland wraps around the windpipe and has a shape that is similar to a butterfly – formed by two wings and attached by a middle part .

The thyroid gland uses iodine to produce thyroid hormones.

  • The two most important thyroid hormones are thyroxine and triiodothyronine , which account for 99.9% and 0.1% of thyroid hormones present in the blood respectively.
  • However, the hormone with the most biological activity is T3.
  • Once released from the thyroid gland into the blood, a large amount of T4 is converted into T3 – the active hormone that affects the metabolism of cells.

Lab Tests And Nodules

Thyroid Nodules and Cancer

Are All Thyroid Nodules Cancer?

Most thyroid nodules are in fact benign , and just the fact that you have a thyroid nodule should not create undue concern that it may be a cancer.

Most nodules rather than being cancer are actually tumorous collections of benign cells variously called adenomas or adenomatoid nodules.

Whether nodules are “cold” or “hot” on thyroid nuclear scanning relates to their ability to trap and collect radioactive substances such as radioactive iodine or other radioactive elements used in nuclear medicine. These isotopes are either swallowed or injected intravenously and their extraction from the blood and concentration within the nodules causes the areas corresponding to the nodules to show up as black “hot” spots on the scan image.

Hot nodules are rarely cancer and most often represent benign follicular adenomas. In addition, such hot nodules may in fact be overproducing thyroid hormone and may cause hyperthyroidism. The larger the “hot” nodule the more likely it will be associated with hyperthyroidism. These nodules may produce either T4 or T3 or a combination of both.

Approximately 10 to 15 percent of patients with thyroid nodules that can be detected by physical examination will have cancerous nodules.

Overview

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Computed Tomography Scan For Medullary Thyroid Cancer

The CT scan of the neck for medullary thyroid cancer is an x-ray test that produces detailed cross-sectional images of your body from the bottom of your brain to the middle of your chest. It can help determine the location and size of the medullary thyroid cancer, whether the cancer has invaded into any nearby structures, and whether they have spread to lymph nodes in nearby areas. A CT scan can also be used to look for spread into distant organs such as the lungs.

A CT scanner has been described as a large donut, with a narrow table in the middle opening. You will need to lie still on the table while the scan is being done. CT scans take longer than regular x-rays, and you might feel a bit confined by the ring while the pictures are being taken.

Instead of taking one picture, like a regular x-ray, a CT scanner takes many pictures while you lie on the table. A computer then combines these pictures into images of slices of the part of your body being studied. A CT scan designed for a diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer is sliced at 1mm steps. It is an incredibly detailed study that creates very exquisite images.

This is a CT scan of the neck in a patient with a small medullary thyroid cancer of the right thyroid lobe. The dashed arrow points to a small lymph node in the right mid neck.

What Are The Stages Of Thyroid Cancer

How To Read A Thyroid Blood Test

Thyroid cancer can be grouped into different stages, based on their size, their spread, and the involvement of nearby lymph nodes. These stages can help determine treatment options and likely outcomes.

Many cancers are staged using the TNM system. T stands for the size of the tumor, N describes lymph node spread, and M describes any spread to other organs

Each of the TNM variables can be further broken down like this:

T: Tumor size

  • T1: < 2cm
  • T4: tumor grows outside of the thyroid
  • T4a: grows into nearby structures
  • T4b: grows in spine or nearby large blood vessels

N: Lymph Nodes

  • NX: regional lymph nodes can’t be assessed
  • N0: no involved regional lymph nodes
  • N1: involved regional lymph nodes
  • N1a: involved central neck lymph nodes
  • N1b: involved lateral neck or mediastinal lymph nodes

M: Metastases

  • M0: no distant metastases
  • M1: distant metastes

Based on these three categories, the cancer is assigned a Stage of 1, 2, 3 or 4. Stage 1 is the least advanced form of cancer, and Stage 4 is the most advanced.

All anaplastic thyroid cancers are considered Stage 4.

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Testing Methods And Means

The determination of substances in blood is often combined with a variety of substance separation and analysis methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy , mass spectrometry , gas chromatography , liquid chromatography and photoacoustic imaging etc. Through the combination of multiple technologies, the possible content that changes a lot in blood can be separated. Besides, for some markers, such as melatonin, they are mainly identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay .

How To Perform A Neck Check Self

A neck check is a simple procedure that can be done just about anywhere. If you have a glass of water and a mirror, youre ready to look for symptoms of thyroid disorders. Dr. Jeffrey Mechanick, clinical professor of Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease at Mount Sinai School of Medicine and president of the AACE, provides some painless guidelines:

  • First, locate your thyroid gland, which is above your collarbone and below your larynx, or voice box. Dont confuse your thyroid with your Adams apple, which lies above the thyroid gland.
  • Keeping your focus on this part of the neck, tip your head back, then swallow a drink of water.
  • Look at your neck in the mirror while you swallow, checking for any static or moving bumps.
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    Diagnosis Of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    • There are approximately 64,000 new thyroid cancers diagnosed in the United States annually
    • The diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer accounts for approximately 85% of all thyroid cancers
    • The diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer is most common in women between the ages of 30 to 50
    • The diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer may occur at any age including infants, children and later years of life
    • The diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer effects women three times more frequently than it does men
    • The diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer is the fifth most common cancer affecting women in the United States

    Related Hormones As Markers

    THYROGLOBULIN AND THYROID CANCER FOLLOW UP

    As we all know, the incidence of thyroid cancer has a very clear and obvious gender difference, which is easily reminiscent of the effects of sex-related hormones. However, the expression of estrogen receptors in thyroid tissue has many different and even some contradictory results. And because sex-related hormones, such as estradiol, are affected by numerous factors, they are not very sensitive and specific. Therefore, despite the fact that many studies have shown that there are multiple ERs in thyroid tissue,30,31 and played an important role in the pathophysiology of thyroid cancer, but it may not be suitable as a diagnostic marker.

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    Follow Up For Thyroid Cancer

    After treatment for thyroid cancer you have regular follow up appointments. Your doctor will ask how you are and check that there are no signs of cancer. The number of appointments you have will depend upon the type and stage of your thyroid cancer. It will also depend upon your response to your treatment.

    Your appointments may be with your specialist in hospital at the beginning, and with your GP later on.

    Who Should Perform Neck Checks

    Theres no definitive recommendation for when to begin performing self-exams, but Mechanick does note that the cancer can appear in young adulthood. It also rarely develops in childhood or adolescence.

    Every person when they have their general physical should have a thyroid exam, and then people who are at higher risk should potentially have a thyroid ultrasoundand not rely just on the manual exam, Mechanick said. By doing this you can detect thyroid cancer at the very early stages.

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    Diagnosis Of Hereditary Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    The diagnosis of the hereditary form of medullary thyroid cancer may also be associated with the following:

    • A 50% risk of transferring the mutated gene to their offspring
    • Predictable behavior of the medullary thyroid cancer based upon the specific RET mutation
    • A family history of medullary thyroid cancer
    • A family history of adrenal tumors
    • A family history of sudden cardiac death
    • A family history of kidney stone
    • A family history of high calcium
    • A family history of hyperparathyroidism or parathyroid tumors
    • Editorial note: The diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer is not commonly associated with any risk factors.

    How Is Thyroid Cancer Diagnosed

    Necessary blood tests for men

    In the past thyroid cancer was often discovered by patients themselves. You may see or feel a lump or nodule on the front of your neck, or your doctor may notice a nodule during a routine physical examination. But today, it is more common for a thyroid cancer to be incidentally identified on a CT/MRI or neck ultrasound done for some reason unrelated to the thyroid.

    The most common initial finding is the appearance of a painless lump in the lower anterior neck in the region of the thyroid gland. In most cases the thyroid function is normal when measured by blood tests.

    Usually the diagnosis of thyroid cancer is suspected because a nodule or mass is detected in the front of the neck. In most cases, a needle biopsy of the nodule is needed to obtain cells for careful evaluation under a microscope. In most cases, microscopic analysis of the cells obtained from a needle biopsy can readily determine if a nodule is benign or malignant . While thyroid blood tests are usually done to evaluate the function of the thyroid, and a thyroid ultrasound is often done to evaluate the structure of the thyroid gland, neither of these types of tests are sufficient to confidently determine if a thyroid nodule is benign or malignant.

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    Do All Thyroid Nodules Require Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy

    No. As a general rule, thyroid nodules less than 1 cm can be followed with observation without the need for fine needle aspiration. These small nodules are often found incidentally on CT, MRI or neck ultrasound done for some other reason. They are very common and are rarely thyroid cancer. Therefore, in the absence of other high risk features, these small nodules are usually observed with a repeat thyroid ultrasound in 6-12 months reserving biopsy for those few nodules that increase in size over time

    The 2016 ATA guidelines also note that a biopsy may not be required for nodules as large as 2 cm if the ultrasonographic features suggest that the nodule is not likely to be thyroid cancer.

    Can I Take The Test At Home

    At-home thyroid test kits are commercially available without a prescription and measure the same hormones as the traditional thyroid panel.

    For at-home testing, you prick your finger to get the necessary blood sample. That sample is then mailed to a laboratory that conducts the thyroid panel and makes the results available to you directly.

    While at-home testing can measure thyroid levels, it is generally not a substitute for a test ordered by your doctor. If an at-home test detects abnormal thyroid levels, your doctor will likely recommend a new blood sample and thyroid panel to confirm the results. At-home tests for thyroid labs may not be as accurate as tests done in a laboratory.

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    What Happens During The History And Physical Exam For Thyroid Cancer Diagnosis

    During the history, a medical professional will ask questions about risk factors like radiation exposure and thyroid cancer in other family members.

    During the physical exam, a medical professional will check the thyroid nodule size, how firm it feels, and for swelling of nearby lymph nodes.

    A medical professional will also ask and look for signs and symptoms of too much or too little thyroid hormone activity . These changes usually suggest that the thyroid nodule is NOT a cancer.

    Can Blood Tests Detect Cancer Anywhere In The Body

    Can a blood test detect cancer?

    Once in a while, you have had your friend, relative or even prominent personnel have passed on due to cancer, have you ever wondered what this cancer is? Actually, cancer also is known commonly as Malignancy is a condition where there is an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in any part of the body.

    Research done show that there are more than 100 different types of cancer among them include lung cancer, lymphoma, breast cancer, colon cancer among others. An individual with cancer will show different sign since different cancers have different symptoms. Since cancer can affect anyone routine blood testing is required. Most people wonder if blood tests detect cancer anywhere in the body. The answer is yes.

    When one is diagnosed to be having a cancer different treatment can be carried depending on the position of the cancer and the type of the that cancer. Some of the treatment used includes surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. All different types of cancer can be treated successfully if at all the diagnosis is done while cancer is at an early stage.

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    Are Thyroid Nodules Common

    Yes, thyroid nodules can be detected with ultrasonography in nearly 40- 50% of otherwise completely healthy adults. Most nodules are so small that they are never noticed by the patient or doctor. However, the wide spread use of CT, MRI, and neck ultrasonography has led to the detection of many very small, asymptomatic thyroid nodules that may or may not require further evaluation.

    Can Throat Cancer Be Detected By Blood Test & Is Cancer In Throat Deadly

    Cancer is one of the most dreaded diseases in the current era. There are different types of cancer that can affect anyone, regardless of the age, gender and race. Though there are certain risk factors that increase the chances of cancer, in general, anyone can be affected by this deadly disease.

    One of the most common types of cancer is throat cancer. Though the term throat cancer is commonly used, it is actually a broad term that includes oral cancer, laryngeal cancer as well as hypopharyngeal cancer. When you have any of the different types of throat cancer, you will have different signs and symptoms that will help the doctor to identify your condition and make a clinical diagnosis on the type of cancer. However, to be assured about the type of cancer that you are suffering from, you need to go through certain diagnostic tests.

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    What Is The Tsh Level For Thyroid Cancer

    Based on the evidence available, the ATA Management Guidelines for Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer33 recommends initial TSH suppression to below 0.1 mU/L for high-risk and intermediate-risk thyroid cancer patients, while maintenance of the TSH at or slightly below the lower limit of

    Circulating Tumor Cell Test

    Scientists edge closer to a blood test to detect cancers ...

    A circulating tumor cell test can check for blood biomarkers that show whether normal cells are transforming into cancer cells. CTC tests can help diagnose and screen patients who have a risk of developing cancer, such as a family history of the disease.

    CTC tests are helpful in the early detection of cancer as well as monitoring treatment effectiveness over time. The only test currently approved for this purpose is called CellSearch CTC, which offers different prostate, colorectal, and breast cancer assays.

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    Diagnosis Of Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Risk Factors For Developing This Cancer

    The diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer may also be associated with the following:

    • A long standing history of a lumps or nodules in the thyroid gland
    • A long standing history of thyroid goiter
    • A history of radiation exposure or previous radiation treatment
    • A family history of papillary thyroid cancer
    • Editorial note: The diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer is not commonly associated with any risk factors.

    ThyroidCancer.com is an educational service of the Clayman Thyroid Center, the world’s leading thyroid cancer surgery center.

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